1.    Achmad Rizal H.B. dan lfhendri, 2001

PENANAMAN PADA KAWASAN HUTAN OLEH MASYARAKAT DI KABUPATEN JAYAWIJAYA, IRIAN JAYA (Planting in The Forest Area by The Indigenous People in Jayawijaya Regency, Irian Jaya)

Buletin Penelitian BPK Manokwari, Vol. 6 No.1 Tahun. 2001, pp 1

Summary

The research had been conducted at same district in Jayawijaya Regency on December 1999.  The purpose of this research is to obtain information about communal forest development in Jayawijaya Regency that had been being carried out since 1991. Data and information were collected by using semi-structured interview to some farms that involved in the communal forest development program, instead of field observation. A handbook of Socio-economics survey of Indonesian forestry is used as a reference in this research. The result of the research indicates that there is a role-combination between government institution and tibal council to establish the area that the development program will be carried oat.  Governtment institution is responsible to formulate the technical criteria such a species composition. soil compatibility training requirement, etc., while tribal council is responsible to formulate the non-technical criteria according to its family right, etc.  It could be implied that government institution is likely dominant in decision making. Communal forest area is 1,189.779 ha or about 22.48% from total land use planning in Jayawijaya, while tree plantation on the area has attained 3,500 ha or about 0.29% during eight years which is scattered in eight districts.  The plantation project can attain only 388.89 ha in a year.

Keywords : Communal forest development. Tree plantation, Technical criteria, Species composition

2.    Achmad Supriadi dan Osly Rachman

IDENTIFIKASI POLA DAN EFISIENSI TATA NIAGA ROTAN DI JAWA (Identification on patterns and efficiency of rattan-marketing in Java)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 4, Tahun 2001

Summary

The marketing chain of rattan commodity is closely related to the income distribution of those who perform efficiently the marketing and mechanism system of rattan. This study deals with the investigation on the patterns of rattan-marketing in Java, i.e. (1) Inter-islands merchant --> rattan crafter --> crafter collector --> domestic consumer; (2) Inter-islands merchant,,--> rattan crafter --> domestic consumer; (3) Rattan crafter --> exporter producer -> overseas consumer.

Viewed from the degree of benefit, all the parties involved in those rattan-marketing's have gained a reasonable benefit with the revenue and cost ratio (RCR) values ranging between 1,11 and 1, 27.  Evaluated from the benefit distribution, rattan marketing with pattern (1) was efficient, while those with pattern (2) and (3) were inefficient and the most efficient, respectively. In the pattern (3), there appeared a positive trend about the presence of domination by Exporter producer.  This is because that domination has brought about some benefit to those taking part in the other rattan-marketing activities.

Keywords : Rattan, marketing, efficiency, and benefit

Ringkasan

Rantai tata niaga suatu komoditi berkaitan erat dengan distribusi pendapatan para pelaku tataniaga dan mekanisme bekerjanya sistem tata niaga rotan yang efisien.

Studi ini meneliti tentang struktur tata niaga rotan di pulau Jawa.  Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa ada tiga pola struktur tataniaga rotan di pulau Jawa, yaitu : (1) Pedagang antar pulau --> Pengrajin rotan --> Pengumpul pengrajin --> Konsumen dalam negeri. (2) Pedagang antar pulau --> Pengrajin rotan --> Konsumen dalam negri dan (3) Pengrajin rotan --> Eksportir Produsen --> Konsumen luar negeri.

Dilihat dari tingkat keuntungan, semua pelaku tataniaga yang terlibat pada ketiga struktur tersebut telah memperoleh keuntungan yang layak dengan nilai RCR berkisar antara 1,11 sampai 1,27.

Dilihat dari distribusi keuntungan, struktur tata niaga pola 1 telah efisien, pola 2 tidak efisien dan pola 3 paling efisien.  Pada pola 3, Produsen eksportir yang bertindak sebagai mitra telah dapat meningkatkan keuntungan pelaku tataniaga yang lainnya.

Kata kunci  :  Rotan, tata niaga, efisien, keuntungan

3.    Ag. Pudjiharta

ASPEK HIDROLOGI DARI EUCALYPTUS (Hydrological Aspect of Eucalyptus)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol.2, No. 1, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Tanaman Eucalyptus sudah dikenal sejak abad 18, dan perkembangan tanaman ini maju pesat pada tahun 1980 setelah Kongres Kehutanan Sedunia Ke VIII di Jakarta tahun 1978.  Tidak lama setelah perkembangan tanaman Eucalyptus berlangsung, maka pada tahun 1988 timbul kritik dan protes terhadap tanaman Eucalyptus karena adanya indikasi pengaruh negatif terhadap ringkungan.

Salah satu aspek lingkungan yang dikhawatirkan menjadi buruk adalah aspek hidrologi karena adanya isu bahwa Eucalyptus memperburuk keseimbangan hidrologi.  Aspek hidrologi dari Eucalyptus yang akan dibahas dalarn artikel ini adalah: evapotranspirasi, intersepsi air hujan oleh tajuk, aliran batang, air lolos dan aliran permukaan.

Rangkuman hasil penelitian mengenai aspek hidrologi dari Eucalyptus ini dimaksudkan untuk memberikan klarifikasi tentang kekhawatiran pengaruh buruk dari Eucalyptus. Khususnya pada aspek hidrologi tidak seluruhnya benar. Hal tersebut terlihat dari kehilangan air hujan oleh intersepsi tajuk relatif kecil, air lolos dan aliran batang relatif besar sedang erosinya relatif kecil.

Kata kunci : Eucalyptus, evapotranpirasi, sirkulasi air

Summary

Eucalyptus has been popular since 18th century but the development of eucalyptus plantation is quite significant in 1980 after the Eight World Forestry Congress in Jakarta in 1978.  But in 1988 there was criticism and protest against Eucalyptus plantation due to the indication of its negative effect on environment

A ghost of a change of worsening the environment is the effect of Eucalyptus plantation on the hydrology balance. The hydrology aspects of eucalyptus discussed on this article are evapotranspiration, rainfall interception by eucalyptus crown, stem flow, through fall and surface run off.

The objective of this article is to provide clarification of the worry about negative effect of eucalyptus.  It is clear that regarding hydrological aspects, not all the worry has reasonable basis as shown by the facts that water loss due to crown interception is small, stem flow and through fall are relatively large, and soil erosion is small.

Keywords :  Eucalyptus, evapotranspiration, water cycle

4.    Ag. Pudjiharta

UJI COBA JENIS UNTUK RERABILITASI LAHAN KRITIS BEKAS LETUSAN GUNUNG BERAPI DI TASIKMALAYA (Species Trial for Rehabilitation of Volcano Eruption Critical Land at Tasikmalaya West Java)

Buletin Penelitian, P3H&KA, No. 626 Th. 2001

Summary

Material of volcanic eruption can shaped, ash, sand and stone. That material contain various mineral which necessary by plant. But this various minerals not decomposed yet, so that elements of mineral can not be used by plant.  Generally of pioneer plant species to take place first and growth on this land. So that volcanic material eruption land can be decomposed faster and leading on hidro-orological consequently was carried out experiment (practically trial) on the field some species plant. This experiment was carried out on volcanic material eruption land of Galunggung volcano at Tasikmalaya whiche eruption 1982.  This land shaped young sand volcanic carped, labil, light to slide and to be carried away by runoff.

The aim of this experiment is to found data of grow thing some species paint which suitable for volcanic material eruption land, so that some species of plant suitable for volcanic material eruption land rehabilitation.

Based on rainfall type (Schmidt & Ferguson, 1952), Galunggung area inclusive of A rainfall type with annual rainfall 6309 mm (Sukajadi, Singaparna).

The pioneer plant species among other thing is : Caliandra callotyrsus was planted for soil cover, and other species like as paku-pakuan, liana, dawola, eldelwais, Saccharum spontanium, Eupatorium palescens and Imperata cylindrica growth nature manner.  Where as the species plant which experimented is : Agathis alba, Pinus merkusii, Paraserianthes falcataria, Quercus sundaica, Podocarpus sp., Schima wallichii and Ainus nepalensis.

Based on result of this experiment during 1994 - I997 can be found conclusion that Alnus nepalensis, Pinus merkusii, Schima wallichii, Podocarpus, Paraserianthes falcataria show capable survive and growth on volcanic material eruption land at Galunggung, Tasikmalaya.

5.    Ag. Pudjiharta

PENGARUH HUTAN TANAMAN INDUSTRI EUCALYPTUS TERHADAP TATA AIR DI JAWA BARAT (The Effect of Eucalyptus Timber Estate on Hydrology at West Java)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 628, Tahun 2001

Summary

The effect of Eucalyptus timber estate on hydrology were studied at Cikole, Lembang, North Bandung.  The rainfall types of area is B (Schmidt and Ferguson, 1951) and annual rainfall of 3008 mm.  The average of air temperature of 190C, relative humidity 82 percent, soil type : Complex Andosol, form tuva volcanic.

The run off were measured with two plots 22 mm x 4 m, steam flow by three plots, through fall by six plots, litter fall six plots and decomposition of litter fall two plots.

The aims of this study are to find out the information about rainfall interception by Eucalyptus crown, stem flow, through fall and netto of precipitation interception Eucalyptus stand. All this information were included of forest hydrology aspect of Eucalyptus.

The result of this study showed that interception 9 months observation the rainfall : 1393 mm, through fall : 88,26 percent of rainfall, stem flow 3,73 percent of rainfall, interception : 8,01 percent, run off : very small (unreadable) and netto of precipitation : 1281,4 mm (91,99 percent of rainfall).  Lesser interception meant higher trough fall and stem flow, this mean higher rain water reaching the soil

The litter production of Eucalyptus is greater than Paraserianthes falcataria and Acacia mangium, but decomposition of litter is slower than of both, wider of spacing, mixed planting will alleviate the effect of litter accumulation.

6.    Ag. Pudjiharta, 2001

PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN MAHONI (Swietenia mahagoni), JOHAR (Cassiajavanica) DAN KAYU PUTIH (Meialeuca cajuputi Powell) PADA LAHAN KRITIS DAERAH KERING DI TUBAN JAWA TIMUR (Growth of mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni), Johar (Cassia javanica) and Kayu Putih (Melaleuca cajuputi Powell) on critical land dry area at Tuban East Java)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, Puslitbang Hutan & KA, No. 625 Tahun 2001, pp 1

Summary

Since REPELITA 1 reforestation activity was carried out at critical and forest degradation rehabilitation to improve hidroorology function.  But that activity was not successful yet.  On 1994 -1997 was carried out experiment to find some plant species which are suitable for critical land on dry climate.  The experiment was conducted at Jerorejo village, Kerek district, Tuban.

Physical condition of field soil is very shallow about 20 cm - 25 cm, rainfall 1165 mm (1997) with 7 total of dry month per year, rainfall type is Awa (Koppen 1952).

The aim of experiment are to find of growing plant data, for to arrange of technical guidden for reforestation critical land on dry climate.

The result of experiment is : based on diameter of stand measurement in 3 year Johar (Cassia javanica), Mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni) and kayu putih (Melaleuca leucadendrum), is  47.5 mm-57 mm; 52,5 mm-52mm 15 mm-34,5 mm. The high of stand of Johar is 305 cm-425 cm, mahoni 270 cm-310 cm and kayu putih 151 cm-230 cm.

Percentage of survive, johar 89% - 97%, mahoni 90% - 98% and kayu putih 31% - 50%. Based on this result can be concluded that Johar and mahoni species is suitable for critical land on dry climate like Jerorejo village.  Where as kayu putih necessary situated in thick soil.

7.    Agus A. Pramono, A. Zaenal Abidin dan Ateng Rachmat

MENINGKATKAN PEROLEHAN TUNAS BERKUALITAS PADA KEBUN PANGKAS

Tekno Benih Vol. VI No.1 hal 56-62 Th 2001

Ringkasan

Untuk menunjang Pengadaan bibit dari stek bagi pembangunan hutan tanaman perlu dibangun sebuah kebun pangkas.  Pembangunan dan pengelolaan kebun pangkas ditujukan untuk menghasilkan bahan stek yang mudah diakarkan, yang memiliki kualitas genetis yang tinggi dalam jumlah banyak pada saat diperlukan, dan menghasilkan bibit yang dapat tumbuh baik di lapang.  Untuk itu diperlukan penguasaan teknik pengelolaan kebun pangkas yang antara lain adalah teknik penanaman, pemupukan, pemangkasan dan penaungan.

Kata kunci : kebun pangkas, pembiakan vegetatif, stek

8.    Agus A. Pramono, Danu dan Djoko lriantono

STANDAR POLA PEWARNAAN TETRAZOLIUM UNTUK UJI CEPAT VIABILIATAS BENIH Pinus merkusii (Tusam) (Standard Color Pattern of Tetrazolium Stain as a Rapid Determination of Viability of Pinus merkusii (Tusam) Seed)

Buletin Tek.  Perbenihan  (Seed Tech. Bull.) Vol. 8, No. 1, 2001 hal 12-23

Summary

The tetrazolium coloring method can be used  as a rapid test for approximating seed viability, with reliable accuracy.  Related as such, this experiment conducted to evaluate the accuracy of several color patterns resulting from the manipulated letrazolium staining implemented to determine the viability of Pinus merkusii seeds. The seeds to be tested were the fresh one obtained from 5 seedlots (i.e. Ponorogo, Pekalongan, Sumedang, Banjaran, and Cililin), and the ones, which had been stored for 1 year, from 2 seed lots (ie.Banjaran and Cililin).

Manipulated staining using such tetrazolium resulted in 13 cotor patterns, of which 3 patterns were selected for developing 3 standard color pattern (i.e. I.  II and III).  Further the three patterns were used to approximate the viability (germination capacity) of Pinus merkusii seeds.  For comparison purpose in assessing the accuracy of such three standard tetrozolium color pattern ( 1, 11, and Ill), viability determination on the corresponding seeds using IPB- Germinator.  It turned out that standard tetrozolium pattern II was the most appropriate in determining seed viability, since it is not significantly different from the one using IPB-germinator. Further different seed lots brought about different accuracy in viability determination.  This occurred due to different qualifies of the seed in different seed lots.  In this regard, seeds with low quality brought out the resulting viability which was a bit higher than the one from the IPB-germinator.

Keywords  :  seed viability, tetrazolium test, Pinus merkusii

9.    Apul Sianturi

ANALISIS PENERIMAAN SUMBERDAYA HUTAN (Forest Resource Rent Tax Analysis)

Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Vol. 2 No. 1 (2001) pp. 1 - 14

Abstract

Concerns about the sustainability of resources and ecosystems have been expressed for a long time.  However the focus of these concerns has gone through several transformation.  Economists have emphasized the economic benefit of the forest especially of the production forest through income earned from harvesting the forest.  The Indonesian government collects a stumpage value around 10 percent of logs price and US$ 16 or around Rp 80.000 per m3 for reforestation fund (DR), which are around 33 percent of the rent Hence, the exploitation of tropical forest has been characterized by a tremendous transfer of wealth from the public to the private sector.

It was found that the under valuation of timber resources is a major factor that contributing to the present declining of the country's natural forest.  In order to improve the sustainability of the forest, the rents that go to the private sectors must be cut by imposing the real stumpage value for each tree harvested from the forest.  After more than 30 years of experiencing in logging operation, the Government of Indonesia should be capable of deciding the real stumpage value.

increase in stumpage value should be followed by improving the management of the forest in order to increase the income which is collected by the Indonesian government as the owner of the forest

Keywords : economic rent, stumpage value, public forest, natural forest, wealth, private sector

10.    Apul Sianturi, 2001

PENGELOLAAN HUTAN DALAM RANGKA OTONOMI DAERAH MENUJU SELF REGULATING ORGANIZATION

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 1-9

Ringkasan

Dengan keluarnya UU No. 22 tahun 1999 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah dan UU No. 25 tahun 1999 tentang Perimbangan Keuangan antara Pemerintah Pusat dan Daerah, serta telah diikuti dengan keluarnya PP No. 25 tahun 2000, maka pemerintah daerah terutama pemerintah kabupaten berusaha untuk menarik kewenangan pengurusan pemerintahan ke daerah teratama yang dapat meningkatkan pendapatan asli daerah (PAD) dengan cepat, seperti masalah kewenangan pengurusan hutan.  Dilain pihak walaupun UU No. 41 tahun 1999 tentang kehutanan sudah ada maupun sampai saat ini belum dijabarkan dalam bentuk peraturan pemerintah (PP), sehingga pemerintah kabupaten tidak mempunyai arahan yang jelas dalam menentukan pengurusan hutan yang ada di daerahnya.  Pengelolaan hutan dapat dilakukan dengan swakelola oleh UPT Dinas Kabupaten, dan dapat pula diserahkan hak pengelolaannya kepada pihak ketiga dalam berbagai bentuk pengelolaan.

Dinas Kehutanan di daerah sebagaimana dinas-dinas yang lain di daerah, apalagi dinas kehutanan tersebut sudah digabungkan dengan dinas lain, tugasnya relatif hanya bersifat administratif saja.  Oleh karena itu perlu dibentuk unit pengelolaan hutan (UPH) yang dapat mengelola hutan secara langsung di lapangan.  UPH tersebut sebaiknya dalam bentuk Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan (KIIH) yang dibagi menjadi Bagian Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan (BKPH) yang dibagi lagi menjadi Resort Polisi Hutan (RPH) dan dilakukan pada semua bentuk/fungsi kawasan hutan yang tidak diserahkan hak pengelolaannya pada pihak ketiga.  UPH tersebut membuat segala rencana kegiatan hutan termasuk tebangan tahunan yang dimasukkan dalam rencana kerja tahunan (RKT). Sesuai dengan RKT maka UPH dapat mengusulkan pemberian ijin HPHH dari areal tebangan yang ada pada pihak ketiga untuk dimanfaatkan kayunya baik dengan cora lelang maupun dengan pembelian langsung sesuai dengan aturan yang berlaku. Dengan cara ini akan terbentuk berbagai lembaga mandiri (Self Regulating Organization atau SRO) di daerah dengan berbagai tugas seperti: SRO pelelangan kerja, SRO penebangan, SRO pembibitan. SRO reboisasi, SRO pemeliharaan hutan dan lain-lain.

Hutan yang diserahkan hak pengelolaanya pada pihak ketiga, diserahkan seluruh bentuk pengelolaanya pada pihak ketiga.  Pihak Dinas Kehutanan hanya bersifat mengawasi pelaksanaannya apakah telah sesuai dengan aturan atas perjanjian yang telah dibuat serta mengevaluasi keadaan hulan yang dikelola pihak ketiga tersebut.

Pembagian kewenangan pengurusan hutan perlu segera dibuat agar tidak terjadi tumpang tindih serta rebutan pengurusan.  Dalam kaitan ini perlu dipikirkan agar kabupaten hanya mengurusi kawasan hutan produksi dan hutan konversi, dan pemerintah propinsi mengurusi kawasan hutan lindung, sedangkan pemerintah pusat mengurusi kawasan hutan konservasi. Untuk itu peraturan dan UU yang bertentangan perlu direvisi paling tidak dalam penjabaran UU No. 41 kedalam PP perlu dipertegas.

Kata kunci : otonomi daerah, desentralisasi, pengurusan, pengelolaan, fungsi hutan

11.    Asep Rohandi & Dede J. Sudrajat

PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN ANAKAN BONGGOL BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper (Schulters f) Backer ex Heyne) (Assessing the Effect of Diferent Fertilzers on the Development Characteristics of Outgrowth Budding of Bonggol (Dendrocalamus asper (Shultes f.) Backer ex Heyne) Bamboo)

Buletin Tek Perbenihan (Seed Tech- Bul.) VoI. 8, NO 1, 2001 hal. 24-40

Summary

The purpose of this trial is to asses the uses of different fertilizers in stimulating the development of outgrowth-budding of bonggol bamboo. In this regard, the latosol medium was used for cultivating such bamboo’s outgrowth-budding. Five different fertilizers in term of various mixing ingredients as well as of their specific dosages were each added (mixed) to the latosol medium. In addition, the cultivation of such outgrowth-budding was performed on the latosol medium without addition of any fertilizers (for control purposes).   The implementation of the of cultivation with different fertilizers as well as with control was each replicated mine times. Eight months afterwards, observations was conducted on characteristics of the cultivated outgrowth-budding covering, i.e. length of the resulting leaves, number of leaves, growth of the developed branches, number of branches, growth of off-shoot,  survival of the outgrowth-budding, and nutrient content in each of the six implemented media (i.e. five different fertilizers and control).  Completely randomized design was arranged in the field to assist analyzing the observed characteristics.

The results revealed that the implementation of five different fertilizers, in comparison to the control, affected significantly the average length, number of leaves and length of branches. However the corresponding implementation, including the control did not effect the number of branches. More specifically, the particular fertilizer with ingredient of Hyponex 20-20-20 at 50 gram dosage as well  as the one with Hyponex 20-20-20 at 25 gram, dosage plus 900 gram of manure turned out to be the most effective for the development of bamboo’s outgrowth-budding. Yet none of the five implemented fertilizers was successful to increase the growth increment of the bamboo shoot.

Keywords : Dendrocalamus asper, outgrowth budding, fertilizing, culllet
Kata Kunci  :  Denrocalamus asper, anakan bongol, pemupukan, rebung

12.    Bakhdal

STUDI ATRAKSI BERUK (M.nemestrina) UNTUK KEGIATAN EKOWISATA DI SIBAGANDING, SUMATERA UTARA (Study On lhe Attraction of Macaca nernestrina for Ecotourisme Sibaganding, North Sumatera)

Buletin BPK P Siantar Vol.17 No.1 Th 2001 hal. 9-22

Summary

Macaca nemestrina, one of primate species living in Sibagandin Primate Protection Area, has been used as an ecotourism object for visitors who plan a recreation and travel to Parapat, North Sumatera. The visitors coming watch M nemestrina attraction and able to interact with them.  It is important to manage the monkey group for ecotourism and population protection.  This research carried out to find data and information about Population and the daily activities of group M. nemestrina in Sibaganding which supporting for ecoturism object. Data was colleted by concentration count method and behavioral data method by scan technique and description analysis.  The number of Individual of M.nemestrina group at attraction area in Sibaganding are fifty. The attractions of M. nemestrina influence to it’s daily activity. The daily activities start at 06.00 a.m up to at 18.00 p.m. Most of their daily activities are resting (43.90%), feed ling (24.60%), social activity (18.30%) and moving (13.18%) for twelve hours at attraction area. The important activities of M. nemestrina group for ecotourism are feeding, social behavior and coming at attraction are in Sibaganding. The visitors who coming earlier watch the feed ling group attraction at 08.00 – 11.00 am or 14.00 – 16.00 pm when they are hugry condition. While interaction, the visitors should not touch them. The coming visitors in Sibaganding have became this animal depend on the food supplied by visitors.

Keywords : M. nemestrina, daily activity, visitor, population

13.    Bakhdal

KAJIAN KELOMPOK SOSIAL DAN INTERAKSINVA PADA HUTAN PRODUKSI DI KECAMATAN TANAH JAWA SIMALUNGUN, SUMATERA UTARA (Study on Social Groups and Its Interaction to Forest Product on Tanah Jawa Sub District, Simalungun District, North Sumatera Province)

Buletin BPK P Siantar Vol.17 No.1 Th 2001 hal. 33-46

Summary

The study was carried out to analyze how social groups that are living around forest production interact with their forest resources.  Data were collected by direct observation and interview in Bosar Nauli village, Tanah Jawa sub district, Simalungun district.  North Sumatera Province from December 1999 to February 2000, and analyzed with description method. The result of study showed that the social groups in that village are consisting of government, officer religion agents, teachers, elders, entrepreneurs, farmers, laborers, female, and descent groups.  From those social groups only the labors are most depending for living on forest resource through illegal logging activities, in the hierarchy of social economic system the labors are part of group that has the lowest level in Bosar Nauli village community. They are commonly young, not married, jobless, and have no land cultivated.  There are other four groups who related to activities of the illegal logging in research location i.e. the capital owners, the agent who connect between the capital owner and, the fellers who fell trees, the loggers who bring log/timber from tree site to truck and the truck drivers with their servant.  Most of the logger and some of the fellers come from that village but the capital owner, the agent, the drivers with their servant and some of the feller come from out of that village.

Keywords : social group, forest products, the illegal logging

14.    Bakhdal

AKTIVITAS HARIAN MONYET EKOR PANJANG (Macacafascicularis) DI SIBAGANDING, SIMALUNGUN, SUMATERA UTARA

KONIFERA No.1 hal 27-42 th 2001

Ringkasan

Hasil pengamatan mendapatkan bahwa monyet ekor panjang (M.fascicularis Raffles, 182 1) mulai beraktivitas pada 06.00 dan berakhir serta kembali pada pohon tempat tidur pada pukul 18.00 WIB.  Selama dua belas jam periode aktif itu, aktivitas harian Mfascicularis didominasi oleh aktivitas makan (36.11%) dan istirahat (35.03%). Sedangkan aktivitas bergerak berlangsung sebesar 21.53 % dan aktivitas lainnya (berkutu-kutu, bermain, dll) tercatat sebesar 8.33%. Sumber pakan utarna satwa tersebut adalah daun muda,buah buahan dan insekta Jenis tumbuhan yang penting untuk mensuplay kebutuhan makanan M fasicicularis di Sibaganding adalah jenis Ficus spp dan Piper aduncum. Kedua jenis tumbuhan tersebut menghasilkan daun dan buah buat keperluan monyet ekorpanjang.Jenis pohon ternpat tidura dalah Ficus, Pinus dan Piper aduncum.  M fascicularis bangun dari tidur pada pukul 06.00 WIB dan tetap berada sekitar pohon tempat tidur selaina 15-30 menit.  Aktivitas bangun tidur ditandai dengan adanya suara tertentu dari pemimpin kelompok, yang nadanya mirip dengan suara ketika mendapatkan ancaman.  Aktivitas setelah bangun tidur tampak tidak terlalu bervariasi, kebanyakan duduk (diam) dan sesekali bergerak sekitar pohon tempat tidur.  Pergerakan berpindah (moving) menuju lokasi sumber pakan merupakan aktivitas awal yang dilakukan setelah bangun tidur.  Selama perpindahan tersebut pemimpin kelompok biasanya berjalan di tengah bersama dengan yang betina dan anak-anak, sedangkan jantan muda atau remaja berada di samping luar kelompok.  Hal ini diduga agar pemimpin kelompok dapat lebih memperhatikan semua anggotanya. Aktivitas selanjutnya adalah makan, istirahat dan aktivitas lain yang berlangsung secara bergantian hingga akhirnya menginap kembali di suatu lokasi tempat tidur.  Setelah sampai di lokasi tempat tidur (pukul 18.00 WIB), M. fascicularis menghentikan aktivitasnya dan langsung tidur sampai bangun kembali besoknya pada O6.OOWIB.

15.    Bambang Wiyono dan Toga Silitonga, 2001

PENGARUH JENIS PELARUT DAN KUALITAS DAMAR TERHADAP RENDEMEN DAN SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA DAMAR YANG DIMURNIKAN (Effect of solvent kinds and damniar qualities on yield and physico-chemical properties of purifted dammar)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan, Vol. 19 No.2 Tahun 2001, pp 103-115

Summary

The objective of this research is to look at the effect of solvent kinds and dammar quality on purified dammar yield and its physico-chemical properties, while the research target is to search for a suitable solvent to purify dammar which still consider its quality.

Several qualities of dammar were purified with two kinds of organic solvents and the purified products were then analyzed of their physico-chemical properties. The effect of solvent kind sand dammar qualities were analyzed with factorial pattern of completely randomized design.  The solvent kinds consisted of benzene, toluene and without purification, while the dammar qualities consisted of A, B, C, D and E  The different between means were analyzed with Duncan's procedure in SAS computer package.

Results indicated that solvent kinds and dammar quality gave a highly significant effect on cad number, iod number, ash content and insolubility matter in toluene, and gave a significant effect on saponification number.  Purifying dammar with benzene produced better physico-chemical properties than with toluene solvent.  Based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) requirement of insolubility matter in alcohol, purifying dammars with organic solvent was able to increase its quality.  Dammar with E quality could be improved to achieve D quality, while dammar with C and B qualities were improved to A quality.  Purifying dammar with organic solvent could increase its quality and the dammar could be formed as needed to simplify the complicated procedure in exporting.

Keywords : dammar quality, organic solvent, purifying

Ringkasan

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis pelarut dan kualitas damar terhadap rendemen dan sifat fisiko-kimia damar yang dimurnikan, sedangkan sasarannya adalah untuk mencari pelarut organik yang dapat digunakan untuk memurnikan damar mata kucing dengan tetap memperhatikan kualitas damar yang dihasilkan.

Berbagai kualitas damar mata kucing dimurnikan dengan menggunakan pelarut organik, kemudian dianalisis sifat fisiko-kimianya. Pengaruh jenis pelarut dan kualitas damar terhadap rendemen dan sifat fisiko-kimia yang dimurnikan dianalisis dengan rancangan faxorial A X B dengan 2 kali ulangan. Faktor perlakuan A merupakan jenis pelarut yang terdiri dari benzena, toluena dan tanpa perlakuan, sedangkan faktor B adalah kualitas damar mata kucing yang terdiri dari kualitas A, B, C, D dan kualitas E. Perbedaan nilai rataan antar perlakuan dianalisis dengan metode Duncan.

Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa jenis pelarut organik dan kualitas damar mata kucing berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap bilangan asam, bilangan iod, kadar abu dan kadar bahan tak larut dalam toluena, dan berpengaruh nyata terhadap bilangan penyabunan damar yang telah dimurnikan. Pemurnian damar mata kucing dengan menggunakan pelarut benzena menghasilkan sifat fisiko-kimia yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan pelarut toluena. Berdasarkan persyaratan bilangan asam dan kadar bahan tak larut dalam toluena menurut SNI, pemurnian damar dengan pelarut organik menaikkan kualitasnya. Kualitas damar mata kucing dari kualitas E menjadi damar kualitas D, sedangkan damar kualitas C dan B meningkat kualitasnya menjadi damar kualitas A.  Pemurnian damar dengan pelarut organik dapat meningkatkan kualitasnya dan damar dapat dibentuk sesuai dengan kebutuhan yang memudahkan dalam pengiriman ke luar negeri.

Kata kunci : damar mata kucing, pelarut organik, pemurnian 

16.    Bambang Wiyono, Kurnia Sofyan, Dedeh Kurniasih, Poedji Hastoeti, 2001

PENGARUH LAMA PENYULINGAN SECARA KERING PADA KONDISI VAKUM TERHADAP RENDEMEN DAN SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA RESIDU DAMAR MATA KUCING (The Effect of a vacuum dry distillation time on yield and tire physico-chemical properties of the dammar residue)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan, Vol. 19 No.2 Tahun 2001, pp 89-101

Summary

Dammar resin of shorca javanica which its essential oil has been isolated can still be used for industrial purposes.  Relating to this, the objective of the research is to investigate the effect of a vacuum dry distillation time on yield and the physico-chemical properties of damar residue.

A vacuum dry distillation technique of dammar was carried out at a press we of 0.06 Pa, a temperature of 65-85 0C for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 hours, respectively.  Each of distilling times was triplicated To see the effect of distilling time on the yield and properties of dammar residue, the data were analyzed by a factorial completely randomized design procedure, and their different means values were tested with Tukey's procedure.  The Relationship between time and the yield or its physico-chemical properties of dammar residue was analyzed with a Polynomial orthogonal regression in a SAS package.

The results showed that distilling time gave a highly significant effect on yield, softening point, ash content, iod number, acid number and saponification number of dammar residue, except for unsoluble matter in toluene.  The increase in distilling time tent to decrease in the yield and acid number of dammar residue, but it also tent to increase in softening point, ash content, iod number, saponification number and unsoluble matter in toluene.  Moreover, distilling time of 2.5 hours is the optimum time to gave the highest values of softening and iod number, but with the lowest value of acid number Polynomial orthogonal analysis revealed that there were Relationship between distilling time and yield of dammar residue and its properties with a highly significance.

Compared to Indonesian National Standard for dammar, dammar residue has not met the requirement for softening point, acid number and ash content criteria. To meet the requirement, it was suggested to increase the pressure in the vacuum dry distillation process with a proper condensation for this pressure.

Keywords :  dammar residue, vacuum dry distillation, physico-chemical properties

Ringkasan

Damar mata kucing yang minyak astirinya sudah disuling masih dapat digunakan untuk tujuan industri. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama penyulingan secara kering pada kondisi vakum terhadap rendemen dan sifat fisiko-kimia residu damar mata kucing.

Penyulingan damar dilakukan secara kering dalam kondisi vakum pada tekanan 0,06 Pa dan suhu 65-850C dengan lama penyulingan yang terdiri dari 0,5,, 1; 1,5,, 2; dan 2,5 jam di mana setiap perlakuan diulang 3 kali.  Pengaruh peningkatan lama penyulingan terhadap kualitas residu damar dianalisis dengan rancangan acak lengkap.  Perbedaan nilai rataan antar perlakuan dianalisis dengan metode Tukey, sedangkan kecenderungan perubahan sifat fisiko-kimia residu damar sejalan dengan meningkatnya lama penyulingan dianalisis dengan polinomal ortogonal menurut prosedur SAS.

Lama penyulingan bepengaruh sangat nyata terhadap rendemen, bilangan asam, titik lunak kadar abu, bilangan penyabunan dan bilangan iod residu damar mata kucing kecuali kadar bahan tak larut dalam toluena.  Peningkatan lama penyulingan menurunkan rendemen dan bilangan asam residu, namun meningkatkan sifat titik lunak, kadar abu, bilangan penyabunan, bilangan iod dan kadar bahan tak larut dalam toluena. Penyulingan damar mata kucing 2,5 jam merupakan lama penyulingan yang optimum karena menghasilkan titik lunak residu yang tinggi dan bilangan iod yang linggi, yang disertai bilangan asam yang rendah.  Lama penyulingan mempunyai hubungan secara nyata dengan rendemen dan sifat fisiko kimia residu damar mata kucing, kecuali bahan yang tak larut dalam toluena.

Dibandingkan dengan standar SNI untuk damar mata kucing, residu damar mata kucing yang telah dipisahkan minyak atsirinya belum memenuhi persyaratan yang ditetapkan baik sifat titik lunak, bilangan asam maupun kadar abuya.  Agar sifat residu damar ini dapat masuk dalam, persyaratan kualitas yang ditetapkan, maka dalam, proses penyulingan minyak damar mata kucing secara vakum perlu dicoba dengan menggunakan tekanan yang lebih besar yang disertai kondensasi yang tepat untuk tekanan tersebut.

Kata kunci :  damar mata kucing, penyulingan kering secara vakum residu penyulingan, rendemen sifat fisiko-kimia  

17.    Bambang Wiyono, Neni Sumarliani, Umi Kulsum, dan Evi Kusmiyati

KUANTIFIKASI BEBERAPA PARAMETER KUALITAS GAHARU (Quantification of several parameters on garro wood quality)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 3, Tahun 2001

Summary

The draft of Indonesia National Standard for garro wood quality has a limitation where parameters used to determine the quality are still qualitative. This has caused a difficulty in assessing the quality of garro wood with different assessor.  One effort to reduce this weakness is to quantify some parameters in this draft.  In accordance with this, the objective of this research is to improve the draft of Indonesian National Standard for garro wood quality, so the assessment could be carried out quantitatively. The results indicated that fragrant dammar content could be quantified with resin content; weight could be quantified with specific gravity and color could be measured with chromameter.  Further analysis on the parameters showed that there were positive correlation between the quality and these examined parameters, where the increase in the garro wood quality correlated, with the increase in the resin content, specific gravity and color value. This proposed draft which seems to have improvement in assessing the quality of garro wood objectively can therefore be suggested for its implementation in reducing human subjectivity.

Keywords : parameter quantification, color, specific gravity, resin content, garro wood

Ringkasan

Konsep SNI kualitas gaharu memiliki kelemahan di mana parameter yang digunakan untuk menentukan kualitas bersifat kualitatif sehingga menyulitkan orang yang menentukannya. Salah satu upaya untuk mengurangi kelemahan tersebut adalah dengan membuat parameter penentu kualitas gaharu secara kuantitatif. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, kegiatan ini bertujuan untuk memperbaiki konsep SNI mengenai gaharu sehingga penilaian dapat dilakukan secara kuantitatif Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa kandungan damar wangi dapat dinilai dengan kandungan resin, bobot dinilai dengan berat jenis, dan warna dinilai dengan alat kromameter. Hasil analisis parameter tersebut menunjukkan adanya korelasi positif antara peningkatan kualitas gaharu dengan peningkatan kandungan resin, berat jenis dan warna dari contoh yang diuji. Perbaikan konsep standar kualitas gubal gaharu yang disarankan dipaparkan dalam tulisan ini.

Kata kunci : kualitas gaharu, warna, berat jenis, kadar resin

18.    C. Yudilastiantoro

KONTRIBUSI PENGHIJAUAN TERHADAP PENDAPATAN PETANI DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK BARAT, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT (The Afforestation Contribution for Farmer Income in Lombok Barat Regency, Nusa Tenggara Barat)

Buletin Teknologi Pengelolaan DAS hal 14-22 th 2001

Summary

The objective of the this research was to observe the contribution of Pilot Project of Natural Resources Conservations ( UP-UPSA), village nusserry, and community forest in raising farmer income.  The research was carried out in Lombok Barat Regency, NTB from September until Desember 2000

The result showed that the afforestation activities can increase work field for surrounding people in five years up to 550 lab our per hectare per year.

The value of NPV with rate of interest of 12 %, was Rp 4.179,400,- up to Rp. 10.555.500,-. The value of IRR from each activities was 13.65% - 19.20%.

The income derived from afforestation is approximaly 30%-40% of total farmer income per house hold per year from the proceeding data, it can be concluded that all of afforestastion activities are potential to be develop.

19.    Danu dan E. Ismiati

PRODUKSI DAN PERKECAMBAHAN BENIH KESAMBI (Schleichera olcosa Merr.)

Tekno Benih Vol. VI No.1 hal 23-26 Th 2001

Ringkasan

Kesambi (Schleichera oleosa Merr.) dikenal pula dengan Schleichera trijuga Willd termasuk family Sapindaceae. Tumbuh alami di lembah Himalaya, Sri Langka, dan Indonesia.  Di Indonesia tumbuh baik di Jawa, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, Maluku, Pulau Seram dan Pulau Kai (Prosea, 1997).  Di Jawa Timur dapat ditemukan di Panarukan, Probolinggo, Pasuruan dan Besuki (Prosea, 1995).  Tumbuh baik pada ketinggian 600 1000 rn dpl dan daerah tanaman jati yang tumbuh liar (Heyne, 1987).  Jenis ini sering digunakan sebagai tanarnan pengisi pada tanaman jati, karena jenis ini memiliki perakaran yang dalam dan selalu tumbuh hijau sehingga tidak mengganggu pertumbuhan tanaman pokok sekaligus berfungsi sebagai sekat bakar.

Kayu kesambi termasuk kuat, keras, ulet, kenyal, berserat halus dan berat (Burkill, 1935; Heyne, 1987), sehingga sering dipergunakan sebagai bahan baku jangkar perahu, alat penumbuk padi, silinder pada alat penggilingan karena tahan terhadap daya gesek, serta penghasil arang yang baik.  Kulit batangnya juga digunakan sebagai bahan penyamak, pembersih dan obat penyakit kulit, terutama di Bali, Madura dan Cina.

Biji kesambi dapat menghasilkan minyak atsiri yang dikenal dengan nama minyak makasar.  Minyak ini dapat dipergunakan sebagai bahan minyak pelumas, sabun lunak, lilin, industri batik, penyumbat perahu, bahan salep, dan dupa.  Daun yang muda dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sayuran.  Selain itu kesambi merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman penghasil lak (lakhars) yang baik (Heyne, 1987).

Kata kunci  : Schleichera oleosa Merr., produksi bernih, perkecambahan
Keywords  :  Schleichera oleosa Merr., seed production, germination

20.    Darwo

EVALUASI PERTUMBURAN TANAMAN MERANTI BATU (Shoreapiatyclados V.SI.) UMUR 50 TAHUN DI CAGAR ALAM MARTELU PURBA, SUMATERA UTARA

KONIFERA No.1 hal 19-26 th 2001

Ringkasan

Persepsi para pengelola Hutan Tanaman khususnya untuk kayu perkakas yang berdaur panjang masih kurang baik, sehingga sampai saat ini belum banyak yang tertarik untuk mengembangkan.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi pertumbuhan dan potensi tegakan meranti batu pada umur 50 tahun guna memberikan gambaran bagi pengguna untuk mengembangkan di daerah lain.  Penelitian dilakukan pada hutan tanaman meranti batu (Shorea platyclados V.SI.) tahun tanam 1949 di kawasan Cagar Alam Martelu Purba dengan jarak tanam awal 10 m x 2,5 m. Paremeter yang ditelaah adalah diameter pohon setinggi dada, tinggi bebas cabang, tinggi total, volume tegakan dan rata-rata tahunan (MAI).  Untuk mengumpulkan data tersebut dibuat petak pengamatan berukuran 50 m x 20 m sebanyak 9 plot. Selanjutnya ditentukan nilai rata-rata, standar deviasi, minimum dan maksimum menurut Steel don Torri (1 993).  Rata-rata diameter pohon 52,90 cm, tinggi bebas cabang 16,03m, linggi total 25,55 m dan volume tegakan 632,29 m3/ha dengan kerapatan tegakan 274,44pohon/ha.  MAI diameter pohon pada umur 50 tahun 1,06 cm/th dan MAI volume tegakan 12,65 m3/ha/tahun Kondisi dan sifat tanah di kawasan tersebut mendukung pertumbuhan tanaman meranti batu tetapi yang masih kurang adalah unsur Ca dan Mg.  Meranti batu dapat dikembangkan di daerah lain khususnya di kawasan Hutan Produksi.  Diharapkan para pengelola Hutan Tanaman dapat mengembangkannya dengan memperhatikan aspek tahapan-tahapan pemeliharaan yang tepat.

Kata kunci  :  kayu perkakas, hutan tanaman, meranti batu, MAI

21.    Dede J. Sudraiat, Buharman dan Asep Rohandi

PENGADAAN BIBIT BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) MELALUI STEK CABANG DAN SPLIT BONGGOL

Tekno Benih Vol. VI  No.1 hal 27-34 Th 2001

Summary

Exploitation of Dendrocalamus asper was not balanced with the cultivation system. Availability of material that source from Dendrocalamus asper for construction, furniture and industry, the longer the time the less the amount However, to guarantee on availability of bamboo materials, necessary supported by improving of harvesting system, intensively of silviculture system and adequate supplying of seedlings.

Propagation of Dendrocalamus asper with branch cutting and split of outgrowth budding can be alternative on availability of Dendrocalamus asper seedlings in more amount and simple application.

Keywords :  Dendrocalamus asper, vegetative propagation, branch cutting, split of out growth budding
Kata kunci : Dendrocalamus asper, perbanyakan vegetatif, stek cabang, split bonggol

22.    Dida Syamsuwida

PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI BENIH MELALUI PERCEPATAN DAN PENINGKATAN PEMBUNGAAN JENIS POHON HUTAN (Increasing Seed production Through Floral Induction and Enhancementof Forest Tree Species)

Tekno Benih Vol.VI  No.1 hal  42-50 Th 2001

Summary

Due to the limitation of seed production for some forest trees, attention should be paid to the attempt of increasing the production of seeds production is the failure of trees to initiate flowering.  Thus, studying the flowering which emphasizes on the initiation of flowering should be well understood. As well as, the development methods of floral induction and enhancement.

The case study of Shorea stenophera showed that the compound imflorescence was a modification of the reiterative developmental pattern observed in vegetative shoot. The time of floral initiation began in June and continued until about November. Floral enhancement using paclobutrazol as a soil drench was attempted in mind July, but this was later found to be after the unsent of floral initiation and the treatment failed to enhance flowering, but it appeared to enhance the rate of floral and fruit development.

Keywords : seed production, floral initiation, induction, enhancement, Shorea stenopters
Kata kunci  : produksi benih, inisiasi pembungaan, induksi, peningkatan, Shorea stenoptera

23.    Dida Syamsuwida, Naning Yuniarti dan Kumiawati P.

PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN PUPUK MEDIA SEMAI DAN INOKULASI RHIZOBIUM PADA SEMAI KIHIANG (Albiziaprocera) dan JOHAR (Cassia siamena) (The effect of fertilizers, cultivating media and rhizobium inoculation on the growth of kihiang (Albizia procera) and Johar (Cassia siamea) seedlings)

Buletin Tek. Perbenihan (Seed Tech Bull.) Vol. 8, No. 1, 2001 hal. 133-146

Summary

The the study was aimed at assessing the effect of implementing different fertilizers, cultivating media and rhizobium inoculation on the viability and other growth characteristics of 3 - months old kihiang (Albizia procera) and johar (Cassia siamea) seedlings.  For cultivating the kihiang seedlings. two kinds of media used were i.e. mixture of sand : soil in 1:1 proportion (by weight) and pulverized coco-peat.  Meanwhile, the fertilizers consisted of N P K chemicals and manure.  Further, the rhizabium was used inoculum.  The cultivation of these seedlings were also conducted on such media without fertilizers as well as without rhizobium inoculum.  For the johar seedlings, their cultivation was performed without the inoculums, but with the media and fertilizers, both corresponding to those for the kihiang seedlings.  Three months afterwards, observation was performed on the viability and other growth characteristics of the two kinds of cultivated seedlings (kihiang and johar), which covered the percent survival of the seedlings, height growth  length of root and number of nitrogen- fixing nodules.  A completely randomized design with factorial pattern was arranged in the field for both seedlings.  For the kihiang seedlings, the factors were media, fertilizers and rhizobium inoculum.  Each of treatments combination of media-fertilizers-inoculums factors was replicated three times.  Meanwhile, for johar seedlings, the factors were only media and fertilizers. Similar to the kihiang seedlings, treatment combinations of media-fertilizer factors were each replicated three times.  Results revealed that. for the 3-months old kihiang seedlings, the use of organic fertilizer (manure) as well as NPK chemicals should be combined with the sand-soil media, but with no inoculums, to increase optimally the seedling survival, height growth, root length and number of nodules.  The application of rhizobium inoculum did not affect the growth characteristics of such seedlings, as otherwise expected.  For the 3-months johar seedlings, the use of soil-sand media in combination with organic fertilizer proved the most effective to increase the seedling survival and height growth.

Keywords : Albizia procera, Cassia siamea, seedling, fertilizers, medium, rhizobium
Kata kunci : Albizia procera, Cassia siamea, semai, pemupukan, media, rhizobium

24.    Dimi Dirdyati

ASPEK SOSIAL YANG MEMPENGARUHI PENGGUNAAN LAHAN DI DTA DANAU TOBA (Studi Kasus di DAS Naborsahon)

KONIFERA No.1 hal  43-52 th 2001

Ringkasan

Ketergantungan petani di desa penelitian terhadap lahan yang dimilikinya cukup tinggi, terbukti lahan-lahan tersebut dimanfaatkan secara intensif dengan tanaman jenis cash crop, walaupun hal ini tidak sesuai dengan kemampuan lahamya.  Banyak alasan yang mendorong petani melakukan budidaya tersebut yang paling utama adalah karena faktor sosial diantaranya yaitu: lahanan yang dimiliki oleh petani sangat sempit serta tidak adanya lapangan pekerjaan lain yang sesuai dengan pendidikan.  Alternatip pilihan yang umunnya dilakukan guna memperluas lahan pertaniannya ialah dengan cara membuka lahan-lahan baru walaupun kondisi topografinya terjal.  Faktor sosial lainnya yang mempengaruhi penggunaan lahan di sekitar danau Toba adalah kebiasaaan membakar lahan untuk mendapatkan pakan temak.  Tanpa disadari oleh para pemakai lahan kegiatan-kegiatan tersebut dapat mengakibatkan sumberdaya perairan yang rusak serta keadaan lingkungan yang tercemar, dan ini dapat berdampak hilangnya fungsi dari danau Toba, seperti diketahui bahwa fungsi danau Toba sangat komplek mulai dari sumber kehidupan sampai peredam banjir dan reservoir pengendali.  Selain itu banyak juga peristivva alam yang mendukung proses penurunan nilai/fungsi danau antara lain terciptanya bahan bakar berupa serasah kering dalam jumlah cukup banyak pada musim kemarau yang memicu terjadinya kebakaran hutan.

Kata kunci : cash crop, lahan pertanian yang sempit, fungsi danau Toba.

25.    Djaban Tinambunan

PEMBOROSAN KAYU DALAM PEMANENAN HUTAN ALAM DI LUAR PULAU JAWA DAN UPAYA MENGATASINYA (Wood Wasting in Natural Forest Harvesting in The Outer Java Island and Its Possible Solutions)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol.2, No. 1, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Praktek pemanenan hutan alam di luar Pulau Jawa dengan sistem HPH yang menerapkan pemanenan secara mekanis ternyata meninggalkan limbah kayu yang sangat besar. Dengan perhitungan paling konservatif saja pada tingkat produksi tahun 1980-an diperoleh limbah sebesar harnpir 7,5 juta m3/tahun dengan nilai sebesar hampir Rp 1,2 triliun/tahun. Konversi limbah tersebut ke luas areal hutan untuk menghasilkan volume kayu sebesar itu adalah lebih dari 124.000 ha/tahun. Limbah sebesar itu merupakan akumulasi dari berbagai limbah yang terjadi pada setiap tahap operasi pemanenan hutan seperti pembukaan wilayah hutan, penebangan, penyaradan, pemotongan, pengangkutan serta akibat kesulitan medan, kelemahan peralatan dan tenaga kerja.

Banyak faktor yang menyebabkan limbah pemanenan hutan tersebut begitu besar. Yang paling nyata terlihat di lapangan antara lain peraturan dan penerapannya yang lemah, mutu sumberdaya manusia perencana, pelaksana dan pengawas pemanenan hutan masih kurang memadai, pengembangan teknologi pemanenan yang lebih efisien tidak ada dan industri pengolahan kayu yang dikembangkan terbatas pada industri yang berbahan baku kayu besar dan lurus saja seperti industri kayu lapis dan penggergajian.

Dengan melihat penyebab besamya limbah tersebut maka upaya yang diperlukan antara lain adalah peningkatan mutu peraturan dan pelaksanaannya, peningkatan mutu sumberdaya manusia perencana, pelaksana dan pengawas pemanenan hutan, pemacuan pengembangan teknologi pemanenan hutan dan diversifikasi industri pengolahan kayu sampai ke industri yang berbahan baku kayu berdiameter sedang dan kecil dan/atau sortimen kayu yang pendek-pendek.

Kata kunci : pemanenan, hutan alam, limbah kayu, penyebab limbah, mengurangi limbah

Summary

Logging practice in natural forest in the outer Java island by forest concessionaire holders using mechanical system causes a large amount of log waste.  Even with conservative calculation using production level of 1980's, total log waste was 7.5 million m3lyear with the value of almost Rp 1.2  trillion/year. To produce log to that waste amount, it is required to harvest more than 124,000 ha/year. That amount of waste was an accumulation of wastes occurred in each harvesting operation step such as forest roading, felling, skidding, bucking and transporting, as well as other wastes happened due to field difficulty, and equipment and worker problems. There are many causes of log waste in limber harvesting. Main causes noticed in the field are the weakness in regulations and their enforcement, the capability of planner, executor and supervisor of timber harvesting, lack of effort in timber harvesting technology development, and the preference to wood processing industry that required large diameter and straight logs for their raw materials.

Related to many causes mentioned above, there are also many ways available to solve the problem of that large amount of waste such as to improve various regulations and their enforcement, improve manpower capability, develop more suitable harvesting technology, and diversify wood processing industries in order to efficiently used small diameter and/or short wood sizes.

Keywords :  Harvesting, natural forest, wood waste, causes of waste, reducing waste

26.    Djaban Tinambunan

BEBAN PROGRAM TAMBAHAN DAN KOMPOSISI BIAYA PENGELOLAAN HUTAN ALAM DENGAN SISTEM TEBANG PILIH TANAM INDONESIA (Additional programs and cost composition in managing natural forest using Indonesian selective cutting and planting system)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol.2, No. 2, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Pengelolaan hutan produksi alam dengan sistem Tebang Pilih Tanam Indonesia (TPTI) yang dilaksanakan para pelaksana Hak Pengusahaan Hutan (HPH) kurang berhasil menciptakan hutan yang lestari.  Penyebab hal tersebut menyangkut banyak faktor yang berhubungan secara kompleks dan belum banyak diteliti sehingga belum dapat diungkapkan secara komprehensif.

Dalam tulisan ini dikemukakan berbagai prograrn tambahan dan komponen biaya pelaksanaan HPH dalam mengelola hutan dengan sistem TPTI dengan mengambil kasus satu HPH berukuran sedang dan sudah lama beroperasi di Kalimantan Tengah.

Informasi yang dikumpulkan menunjukkan bahwa HPH pelaksana TPTI telah dibebani dengan 12 program tambahan yang masing-masing memerlukan tenaga, sarana dan biaya yang cukup besar. Hal ini sudah barang tentu mengurangi kemampuan pelaksana HPH untuk menerapkan sistem TPTI dengan baik. Di samping itu, dalam komposisi biaya pelaksanaan HPH juga terlihat bahwa fokus kegiatan bukanlah pembangunan hutan tetapi pemanenan hasil hutan.  Hal ini terlihat dari alokasi biaya untuk pembangunan hutan serta pendidikan dan latihan tenaga kerja dan penelitian dan pengembangan mendapat porsi yang kecil.

Peninjauan terhadap program-program tambahan dari pemerintah dan komposisi anggaran perusahaan perlu dilakukan untuk mendorong penguatan dan percepatan kegiatan pembangunan hutan menuju hutan yang lestari.

Kata kunci : pelaksanaan TPTI, program tambaban TPTI, komposisi biaya HPH, biaya pemungutan hasil hutan

Summary

The application of TPTI system in managing natural production forest by forest concession holders still can not reach the expected sustained forests.  The reason for that is the involvement of many factors with complex relationship and, therefore, still cannot be explained comprehensively.

This article is dealing : with various additional programs enforced by the government and the cost components of forest concession in managing forest with TPTI system, using information collected from one medium size and has quite long experienced forest concession in Kalimantan Tengah.

Gathered information showed that TPTI system has been overburdened by twelve additional programs that required, quite large amount of human resources, equipment and cost.  This, in turn, reduced the capability of the company in realizing good TPTI practices. Besides, it is noticed that in the cost composition, the real focus of concession holders is not on forest development yet, but timber harvesting. Costs allocated to forest development and training and research were small.

Evaluation of various additional programs and cost composition in forest concession budget is strongly needed in order to increase their capability for forest development leading to sustained forests.

Keywords : TPTI realization, additional program to TPTI, cost composition, forest harvesting cost

27.    Djiman Sitepu dan Paribotro Sutigno

PERANAN TANAMAN OBAT DALAM PENGEMBANGAN HUTAN TANAMAN (The Roles of medicinal Plants on Plantation Forest Development)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2001

Ringkasan

Perkembangan lptek (Ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi) di bidang budidaya tanaman obat dan pembangunan hutan tanaman telah sedemikian berdaya guna sehingga memungkinkan untuk melakukan manipulasi terhadap faktor lingkungan, untuk menunjang kehidupan masyarakat setempat.  Ini merupakan modal kuat untuk menambah manfaat pengembangan hutan tanaman sebagai kawasan yang ramah dan berkelanjutan sesuai kebutuhan setempat. Salah satu kelompok tanaman yang berasosiasi dengan ekosistem hutan (konservasi, lindung dan/atau produksi) adalah yang berkhasiat obat, kosmetik dan berbagai produk bahan makanan dan minuman sehat. Rekayasa teknologi budidaya, alat, sosial-budaya, pasca panen dan industri untuk pengembangan berbagai jenis tanaman obat yang dilandasi lptek dapat menunjang pembangunan sistern berusahatani/berwanatani untuk percepatan dan keberlanjutan pembangunan hutan tanaman yang di sekitarnya tumbuh masyarakat yang mengandalkan usahatani, perkebunan dan kehutanan sebagai sumber mata pencaharian atau tempat bekerja.  Tanaman obat yang beraneka ragam jenis, habitus, ekologi dan khasiatnya mempunyai peluang besar dan rnemberi kontribusi yang tidak ternilai bagi pembangunan dan pengembangan hutan tanaman di Indonesia. Karakteristik berbagai tanaman obat yang menunjang pertumbuhannya untuk menghasilkan produk berguna bagi masyarakat memberi peluang untuk dibangun dan dikembangkan bersama jenis-jenis tanaman dalam hutan tanaman di daerah tertentu.  Bagaimanapun, hal ini tetap berlandas pada sosial budaya setempat yang mempengaruhi ekosistem pertanian, perkebunan dan kehutanan. Berbagai keuntungan yang dihasilkan dengan berperannya tanaman obat dalam hutan tanaman adalah: pendapatan, kesejahteraan, konservasi berbagai sumber daya, pendidikan nonformal, keberlanjutan usaha dan penyerapan tenaga kerja serta keamanan sosial. Pemberdayaan aset (asset) hutan tanaman yang bijaksana dapat membantu program pembangunan hutan di berbagai daerah di Indonesia yang di dalamnya terkandung pula upaya menyehatkan sumberdaya alam nasional.

Kata kunci : tanaman obat, hutan tanaman, masyarakat setempat

Summary

Improved science and technology on the cultivation of medicinal plants as well as on the development of plantation forest have enabled people to manipulate micro-environmental conditions as useful determinants for improving human beings' welfare near and around the forest vicinities.  Such strategic tools would enhance the plantation forest development to become useful and sustainable nature to the community.  A great number of plants associated with forest ecosystem in terms of conservation, protection and production, are those which produce various kinds of medicines, cosmetics and other diversified products for foods and drinks.  Engineering on technology of cultivations, tools, post harvests, socio-cultures and local industries to support the development of medicinal plants would help enhance the realization of the agro-forestry for plantation forest in certain areas where community members are holding farming's, plantations and plantation forests for their daily activities. Medicinal plants with various kinds, habitats, ecological conditions and utilization opportunities provide great contributions on the development of plantation forests throughout Indonesia. Local specific characters supporting the introductions of the medicinal plants in a plantation forest system, are great advantages to give various kinds of benefit in terms of income, wealth and labor opportunity to local community members in the plantation forest areas. Other important aspects of including medicinal plants in the plantation forest development are germ plasm conservation, informal education, sustainable daily work for many members in the community and conducive environment, social security in particular. In line with that, all assets of the Plantation forest become very beneficial in realizing the plantation forest development programs throughout Indonesia. It also important to get the community members convinced about tremendous useful resources and functions of plantations forest, including medicinal plants, with the success of the project implementations throughout Indonesia.

Keywords : medicinal plants, plantation forest, local community

28.    Dony Rachmanadi

PENGARUH HORMON PENGATUR TUMBUH TERHADAP PERTUMBURANCABUTAN ANAKAN ALAM BEBERAPA JENIS DIPTEROCARPACEAE (The Effect of Rootone F Plant Growth Regulator on Growth of Several Dipterocarp Wildings)

Buletin Teknologi Reboisasi BTR Banjarbaru No.6  hal 27-34 th 2001

Summary

Dipterocarp species are generally commercial species, dominating tropical rain forest particularly in Kalirnantan.  Its wood is used for industry and construction.  Other products of dipterocarp include damar and tengkawang oil.

There are many utilization of dipterocarp wood, and development of wood technology and forest harvesting technology increase exploitation of dipterocarp species.  Plant propagation of dipterocarp species such as generative and vegetative propagation is supposed to overcome this over-exsploitation.  Generative propagation has some problems, including irregular fruiting time and short dormancy period of the seeds.  Wildlings, stumps and cuttings are used vegetatively in the cultivation of those species.

Usually in vegetative propagation, hormone or plant growth regulators like root one are used to accelerate growth.  This plant trial is aimed at find out the effect of root one F on the dipterocarp seedlings.  The species are Shorea johorensis, S. panifolia, S. faquetiana, Hopea sangal and S. parvistipulata.

The result of the trial showed that plant growth regulator was not affected significantly.  Plant survival was high enough (96%), conclusions root one F doesn't necessary stimulated wilding for some dipterocarp species.  In addition the nursery condition of the trial was good.

Keywords : Shorea johorensis, S.parvifolia, S.faquetiana, S.parvistipulata, Hopea sangal, wildling, root one-F, nursery.

29.    Dony Rachmanadi, Herman Daryono, M. Yafis dan Rusmana

REHABILITASI HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT :UJI COBA PENANAMAN PADA AREAL RUTAN RAWA GAMBUT BEKAS TEBANGAN (Peat Swamps Forest Rehabilitation : Planting Trial on Logged-over Peat Swamp Forests)

Buletin Teknologi BTR Banjarbaru No.7 hal 35-41 Th 2001

Abstract

The planting trial was conducted on the logged-over peat swamp forest area, at Teluk Umpan, Central Kalimantan.  Five species were test namely ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), meranti (Shorea panifolia), resak (Vatica rassak), punak (Tetramerista glabra), dan kapur naga (Calophyllum macrocarpum).

The experiment planted using 25 seedlings for each species, into line planting system.  Spacing between line planting was 10 m and 3 m between seedling within line planting.  Five seedlings for each species were planted in line, therefore total line was five line.

Two, years after planting, the result indicated that the survival rate of resak (V. rassak), ramin (G. bancanus) , punak (T. glabra), Kapur naga (C. macrocarpum) and meranti (S. parvifolia) were 84%, 76%, 64%, 56%, and 48% respectively.  However punak was the best diameter stem increment (8,7 mm), and then meranti (7,8 mm), kapur naga (7,7 mm), ramin (5,0 mm), and resak 3,9 mm).  Meranti was the best height increment (53,1 cm) and then punak (41,3 cm), resak (37,4 cm), kapur naga (36,6 cm) and ramin (14,7 cm)

Keywords : rehabilitation, peat swamp forest, logged-over area, planting, growth

30.    Dulsalam & Sukadaryati

PRODUKTIVITAS DAN BIAYA PENYARADAN KAYU DENGAN KERBAU DI JAMBI (Productivity and cost of log-skidding using buffalo in Jambi)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 3, Tahun 2001

Summary

An investigation on productivity and log-skidding cost using buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was carried out at the area of Inhutani V in Jambi in 1999. The objective is to get reliable information about such productivity and cost. Connected with this purpose, some related data as collected were i.e. volume of skidded log, skidding distance, skidding-working time, buffalo working time, feeding cost, operator cost, and equipment.

Volumes of log which was skidded using buffalo ranged between 0.094 and 0.904 m3ltrip with an average of 0.484 m3/trip. Skidding distance using buffalo varied from 10 to 242 m with an average of 82 m. The working time varied from 11 to 83 minutes with an average of 30 minutes . The log skidding productivity ranged between 0.035 and 1.211 m3-hm/hour with an average of 0.338 m3 –hm/hour.  Log skidding costs using buffalo ranged between Rp 681 and Rp 23.589/M3 -hm with an average of Rp 4.375/m3 -hm.  It is suggested that volume of skidded log in each round trip and skidding distance be not more than 1 M3 and 250 m, respectively.

Keywords  :  productivity, cost, log skidding, buffalo

Ringkasan

Penelitian mengenai produktivitas dan biaya penyaradan kayu dengan menggunakan kerbau dilakukan di PT. Inhutani V di Jambi pada tahun 1999.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui produktivitas dan biaya penyaradan kayu menggunakan kerbau. Data yang dikumpulkan berupa volume kayu yang disarad, jarak sarad, waktu kerja penyaradan, waktu kerja kerbau, biaya pakan, upah, pekerja, dan biaya peralatan.

Volume kayu yang disarad oleh seekor kerbau berkisar antara 0,094 - 0,904 m3/rit dengan rata-rata 0,484 m3/rit. Jarak sarad yang ditempuh antara 11 - 242 m dengan rata-rata 82 m.  Waktu kerja penyaradan bervariasi antara 11 - 83 menit dengan rata-rata 30 menit. Produktivitas penyaradan yang dihasilkan berkisar antara 0,035 - 1,211 M3-hm/jam dengan rata-rata 0,338 m3-hm/jam. Biaya penyaradan kayu dengan menggunakan seekor kerbau adalah sebesar Rp 681 - Rp 23.589/m3 -hm dengan rata-rata Rp 4.375/m3 -hm. Disarankan volume kayu yang disarad tidak lebih dari 1 m3 per rit dan jarak penyaradan tidak lebih dari 250 meter.

Kata kunci : produktivitas, biaya, penyaradan kayu, kerbau

31.    Durahim dan Hendromono

KEMUNGKINAN PENGGUNAAN LIMBAH ORGANIK SABUT KELAPA SAWIT DAN SEKAM PADI SEBAGAI CAMPURAN TOP- SOIL UNTUK MEDIA PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT MAHONI (Swietenia macrophylla King.) (The possibility of using organic waste from oil palm and rice husk as top-soil mixture for growing media of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King.) seedlings)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 628, Tahun 2001

Summary

The success of mahogany seedling growth is dependent on their root growth and development.  The root growth is affected by growing medium of the seedlings.  The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effect of growing media and seed size on the growth and morphological quality of mahogany seedlings.

Seven types of media namely: pure top-soil, top-soil + rice husk = 1 : 1 (v/v), top-soil + oil palm husk = 1 : 1 (v/v), rice husk + oil palm husk = 1 : 1 (v/v), top-soil + rice husk + oil palm husk = 1 : 1 : 1 (v/v), pure rice husk, pure oil palm husk, and three seed sizes (small, medium, large) were arranged in a factorial experiment within completely randomized design with 5 replications.  Each replication consisted of 5 seedlings.

The result showed that the growth and morphological quality of mahogany seedlings were better on top-soil + organic media mixture than on those pure top-soil medium.  The medium which can be used for the growth of mahogany seedlings are Oxisol top-soil + oil palm husk + rice husk = 1 : 1 : 1 (v/v), oil palm husk + rice husk = 1 : 1 (v/v), or top-soil + oil palm husk = 1 : 1 (v/v).  These media more suitable than pure top-soil from the aspects of the growth, morphological quality and the light weight of. mahogany seedlings.  Seed size was not significantly affect the growth and morphological quality of mahogany seedlings.

Kata kunci (Keywords) : mahoni, bibit, top-soil, sabut kelapa sawit, sekam padi (mahogany, seedling, top-soil, oil palm husk, rice husk)

32.    E. Basri

THE DRYING SCHEDULES FOR SMALL-DIAMETER LOGS  FROM JAMBI, AND THEIR PROPER UTILIZATION FOR WOODEN CRAFT PRODUCTS  

Forestry Research Journal Vol. 2 No.1 2001

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to obtain optimal drying schedules of five woods species with small-diameter logs, and to find out their proper utilization with respect to the criteria on decorative value, machining properties, and wood strength. The species were mahang (Macaranga cruinosa), medang (Litsea sp.), balam (Palaquium gutta), bayur (Pterospermum diversifolium), and merkubung (Macaranga gigantea).

The drying schedule for each species was based on results of preliminary investigation at 100oC. The preliminary steaming was performed on green wood samples at 100oC temperature and 100% humidity which were both maintained for two hours. The steaming treatment was only implemented on medang and balam woods prior to their drying.  

Results reveals that the optimal drying schedules for mahang, medang, and balam species were similar to each other, i.e. at 38oC - 60oC temperatures and 86% - 38% humidity.  Meanwhile, the schedules for bayur and merkubung at 43oC – 77oC and 75% - 33%. The preliminary steaming seemed effective in maintaining the original properties of medang and balam woods. Based on criteria evaluation, mahang species was suitable material for  wooden craft products, such as traditional dolls, masks, and fancy  sandals. Meanwhile, medang wood was for kitchen utensils; balam for toys and kitchen utensils; merkubung for fancy sandals; and bayur for traditional dolls, masks, fancy sandals, and kitchen utensils.

Keywords  : small-diameter logs, drying schedule, preliminary steaming, wood quality, and wooden craft products

33.    Edy Subagyo, Bambang Prayudi dan Fakhmi Rizani

UJI KETAHANAN PROVENANSI Acacia mangium TERRADAP PENVAKIT KARAT (Resistance of several Acacia mangium provenances on phyllode rust)

Buletin Teknologi BTR Banjarbaru No.7 hal 42-47 Th 2001

Abstract

Phyllode rust disease caused by Atelocauda digitata has been found on Acacia mangium Willd. plantation. The diseases retarded plantation growth particularly at seedling stage, and sometimes caused seedling mortality.

This study was aimed to investigate the resistance of A. mangium provenances to the phyllode rust.  Moreover, it was also investigated whether the resistance was due to genetic factor or environmental condition.

The augmented design was employed using 17 provenances and four replicates.  Seedling of 2.5 months old was inoculated naturally by placing the seedling under infected plantation.  Assessment was conducted by means of early symtoms and its intensity on every provenance.                                      

Results indicated that second weeks after inoculation phyllode rust was detected.  The best Provenances and classified as rather resistant were Wipim, PNG and Oriomo.  PNG, provenances.  While Ingham, QLD and Side, Ceram, INA provenances were the most susceptible.  Heritability calculation indicated that 66.52 % o f phyllode rust was influenced by genetic factor and 33.48 % affected by the environment.

Keywords : phylode, provenance, Acacia mangium, resistence

34.    Eliya Suita dan Abdullah Syarief Mukhtar, 2001

STUDI PERMINTAAN DAGING RUSA DARI HASIL PENANGKARAN DI JAKARTA (The Study of Demand of  Venison from Deer Breeding in Jakarta)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, Puslitbang Hutan & KA, No. 625 Tahun 2001, pp 19

Summary

Indonesia has various natural resources.  One of them is deer. The deer as a wildlife can be bred and has high economic value.  Nowadays, not much venison is at restaurants in Jakarta, because it is sold rare in the market but also expensive. Venison is imported from New Zealand.

This field research was carried out for three months in Jakarta, to evaluate the prospect of demand of venison from deer breeding.

The result of research showed that venison has a good prospect based on present demand. 84.21 percent of the 142 visitors (Table 6) of restaurants said they would cat the venison - food, while 14.29 percent of the 28 owners (Table 2) of restaurants want to sell venison, provided it was promoted beforehand 21.21 percent of the 33 meat buyers (Table 10) would buy venison, and 60.00 percent of the 15 butcher (Table 11) would sell it in the future.

Kata kunci (Keywords) : daging rusa, penangkaran

35.    Elvida Yosefi Suryadi

INDUKSI PERAKARAN EUCALYPTUS DEGLUPTA BLUME IN VITRO DENGAN PERLAKUAN KLON MEDIA DASAR, ZAT PENGATUR TUMBUH IBA DAN ARANG AKTIF (Root Induction of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume in Vitro with Clone, Basal Medium, IBA and Activated Charcoal Treatment)

Buletin Teknologi Reboisasi BTR Banjarbaru  No. 6 hal 1-14 th 2001

Summary

Eucalyptus deglupta Blume (leda) is one of the fast growing species that has various utilizations and high economic value.  The immediate benefit can be recognized by means of tissue culture technology because of ability to obtain a large number of propagates originating from a small number of selected trees in a shorter time.  There are four stages in tissue culture from explants to entire organism namely of (1) initiation of shoots, (2) shoot multiplication, (3) induction of root, and (4) acclimatization.  Root induction is an important stage to face precondition from in vitro to ex vitro.  Factors affecting the success in tissue culture are internal factor (genetic) and external factor (basal medium, hormone, activated charcoal and any other additive compound).  This experiment was aimed at to investigate the effect of clone, plant growth regulator, basal medium, and activated charcoal applications.  The result showed that Murashige Skoog (MS) (1/2) medium and IBA 1 mg/l concentration gave the best result against the induction of root E. deglupta (score 72).  Explants on MS 1/2 gave root 4,0 crn with shoot height 3,3 mm and produce 33,9% callus.  The number of root in MS 1/2 was not significantly different.  IBA 1 mg/l was considerable the optimum concentration due to produce 100% root, with root length average 3,3 cm. Activated charcoal did not produce high rooting yet and decreased formation of callus.  Meanwhile, Eucalyptus E 56 was the responsive clone by basal medium and IBA treatment.

Keywords  : tissue, culture, root induction, IBA, deglupta, murashige skoog (MS)

36.    Erra Yusnita, B. Wiyono dan Hartoyo, 2001

PENGARUH LAMA PEMASAKAN BIJI TERHADAP RENDEMEN DAN SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK KEMIRI (The Effect of Cooking Duration of Kemiri Nut on the Yield and Physico-Chemical Properties of the Oil)

Buletin Penelitian Puslitbang Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Vol. 19 N0. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 1-8

Summary

Kemiri (Aleuritus mollucaa Willd) plants are widely distributed in the tropical and sub tropical regions.  Meanwhile, kemiri plant grows vastly almost anywhere in Indonesia.  Kemiri nut meg can be used not only as food-seasoning, ingredients but also as a traditional medicine. The kernel portion of kemiri nut has high nutrition and energy (calorific) values, and so does its oil. The nut, is the meat part after removing the kemiri thell, could is further produced oil after having undergone curtains extractions process.

Kemiri nut oil has such specific characteristics that being easily dried under open air. Therefore, this oil can be used as volatilizing agent in the manufactures of paint and varnish.

In addition, the properties of kemiri nut oil are affected by its extraction methods and quality of its raw material (kemiri nut).  In this regard, the study is conducted to leam the effect of cooking duration on the yield and physico-chemical properties of the resulting oil The aim of this study is find out the optimal cooking duration capable of producing oil with satisfactory qualities.

The results reveal that increase in the cooking duration are affected significantly the yield, specific gravity, light transmittion, free fatty acid (FFA) content, and iod number of the oil. Cooking duration for 30 minutes turned ant to give optimum condition with respect to oil properties, i.e. yield at 49,94%, iod number = 158,657, FFA=1,1399, specific gravity = 0,9211, and transmition = 70,43.

Keywords : yield, physico-chemical properties, cooking duration

Ringkasan

Tanaman kemiri tersebar luas di daerah tropis dan sub tropis. Sedangkan di Indonesia tanaman kemiri tersebar luas hampir di seluruh hampir di seluruh wilayah nusantara. Biji kemiri (Aleuritus mollucana Willd) selain digunakan sebagai bumbu penyedap masakan, dapat pula dimafaatkan untuk obat tradisional. Daging biji kemiri memiliki kadar gizi dan energi yang sangat tinggi (terlebih kadar minyak).

Minyak kemiri mempunyai sifat-sifat khusus, dimana minyak ini mudah mengering bila dibiarkan di udara terbuka. Oleh karena itu minyak kemiri dapat digunakan sebagai minyak pengering dalam industri cat dan vernish.

Sifat minyak kemiri yang dihasilkan, antara lain dipengaruhi oleh metode ekstraksi dan mutu bahan bakunya.  Sehubungan dengan itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui waktu pemasakan biji kemiri terhadap rendmen dan sifat fisiko kimia minyak yang dihasilkan, dan sasarannya adalah untuk memperoleh kondisi waktu pemasakan biji kemiri yang optimal, sehingga persyaratan kwalitas minyak kemiri yang dihasilkan memadai.

Hasil penelitian munujukkan bahwa peningkatan waktu pemasakan berpengaruh sangat , nyata terhadap rendemen, berat jenis, transmisi, kadar asam lemak bebas dan bilangan iod yang dihasilkan. Minyak yang dihasilkan dengan lama pemasakan 30 menit merupakan sebesar 49,94%, bilangan iod = 158,657; kadar asam lemak bebas = 1,1399; berat jenis = 0,9211 dan transmisi = 76,45

Kata kunci : rendemen, sifat fisiko kimia, waktu pemasakan

37.    Erra Yusnita, S. Sumadiwangsa, Dendi Setyawan dan Erik Dahlian

PENGARUH KADAR STIMULAN TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS GETAH POHON PINUS (Pinus merkussi Jungh. et de Vriese) PADA BERBAGAI TINGKAT UMUR DI DAERAH SUMEDANG, JAWA BARAT (The Effect of stimulant percentage on productivity of pine gum from pine (Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de. Vriese) trees at different age levels, growing in Sumedang, West Java)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 3, Tahun 2001

Summary

Pine (Pinus merkusii Jungh et.de.Vriese) trees have an important role on related industries endeavoring in forest products, due to the widespread utilization on their potential wood as well as gum matters.

Production of pine gum can be affected by the manner of its tapping, kind and percentage of stimulant agent, age and diameter of trees. and genotype factors. Related as such, this investigation was intended to evaluate the effect of pine tree diameters and stimulant percentage on productivity of pine tapping.  In addition, this investigation was also to evaluate whether the tapping orientations (i.e. north-, east-, south-, and west-directions) affected the gum productivity. The main aim was to find out which tapping manner turned out to be the most efficient, the most economic and the safest either to the trees. or to the tapping worker themselves and end up with the optimum and continuity of pine gum production. The pine trees selected for this investigation were the ones growing in Sumedang region, West Java (Indonesia).

Results revealed that age of pine trees significantly affected the gum production.  Tree age of 16,26 and 31 year old produced gum at 50.15 gr, 81.94 gr, and 9.17 gr respectively per tree stand.  Meanwhile productivity was also affected by tapping orientation, in which) the east direction of tapping on 16- year old pine tree at stimulant level of either 15 % or 20 % brought about the optimum productivity.  Likewise, optimum production was obtained from 26-year old pine tree at 15 % stimulant percentage with north- as well as south-direction of tapping, and from the 31-year old pine free stands at 25 % stimulant by west-direction tapping.

Keywords : age of pine trees, gum, productivity, stimulant level

Ringkasan

Pohon tusam (Pinus merkusii Jungh et de. Vriese) merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman hutan yang memegang peranan penting dalam berbagai bidang industri, karena selain menghasilkan kayu juga menghasilkan getah.

Pada proses penyadapan pohon untuk menghasilkan getah, faktor yang dapat berpengaruh terhadap produksi getah adalah genotip, asal pohon umur, diameter pohon, cara penyadapan, macam dan kadar bahan perangsang.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh umur, kadar stimulan dan diameter pohon terhadap produktivitas getah pinus. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lain yang diduga berpengaruh terhadap produktivitas getah seperti arah mata angin penyadapan.

Sasarannya adalah untuk mengetahui cara penyadapan yang paling efisien, ekonomis dan aman terhadap pohon dan para penyadap dengan hasil produksi getah optimum dan berkelanjutan.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa umur pohon sangat berpengaruh terhadap produktivitas getah. Pohon yang berumur 16,26 dan 31 tahun, masing-masing menghasilkan getah sebesar 50,15 gram, 81,94 gram dan 9,17 gram per pohon, Pemanenan getah pinus untuk tegakan pohon umur 16 tahun, penggunaan kadar stimulan yang menghasilkan getah optimum adalah 15% atau 20% dengan arah sadapan Timur. Tegakan pohon umur 26 tahun dngan penggunaan kadar stimulan 15% dengan arah sadapan Selatan atau Utara.  Sedangkan untuk tegakan pohon umur 31 tahun hasil getah optimum pada pemakaian kadar stimulan 25% dengan arah sadapan Barat.

Kata kunci : getah, produktivitas, kadar stimulan, umur pohon

38.    Evi Irawan dan C. Nugroho S. Priyono

PERSEPSI PETANI TERHADAP PROGRAM PENGHIJAUAN: Studi Kasus di Kabupaten Karanganyar dan Sragen Farmers' Perception toward Regreening Program: A Case Study in Karanganyar and Sragen Districts

Buletin Teknologi BTP DAS Surakarta, Nomor VII, 1, 2001

Abstract

It has been well known that regreening program was carried out in the way of top down approach. It was indicated that farmers have different perception with the government's regreening program. This study was to examine farmers' perception toward regreening program conducting by survey method. Data were collected by distributing questionnaire to 120 farmers and analyzed using descriptive statistics and scoring. The results revealed that (1) farmers' perception toward regreening program tended to positive. Percentage of farmers who agreed with statement that regreening program was joint responsibility between farmers and government was high (more than 75 per cent). Similarly, more than 75 per cent of farmers had perception tended to positive toward statement that farmers participation in whole process of regreening program would be able to make the program success, (2) All of the farmers, both in Karanganyar and Sragen, had perception that were inclined to positive toward regreening technology. The number of farmers in Karanganyar who had positive perception was about 75 percent, whereas the number of farmers in Sragen was about 50 percent, (3) There was a difference between farmers in Karanganyar and Sragen. Farmers in Sragen had only 2 (two) kinds of perception categories. They were 'never' and 'seldom' categories of perception toward their involvement in regreening program. Whereas, farmers in Karanganyar had various perception. They were 'never', 'seldom', 'sometimes'.  'often', and 'always' (4) Most of the farmers in Sragen (more than 75 percent) had perception that they were never involved in regreening program (total score value 5-9), whereas the number of farmers in Karanganyar who had total score value 5-9 were about 25 percent, (5) Most of the farmers in Karanganyar (more or less 40 percent) had perception that they were seldom involved in regreening program (total score value 10- 14), whereas the number of farmers in Sragen who had total score value 10- 14 were about 10 percent.

Keywords : regreening program, farmer's perception

39.    Evi Irawan, Purwanto dan Corryanti Twn

KOMPOSISI SUMBER PENDAPATAN PETANI PESANGGEM Studi Kasus di RPH Besali, BKPH Kates, KPH Padangan (Composition of Forestry Farmers' Sources of Income Case Study at RPH Besali, BKPH Kates, KPH Padangan)

Buletin Teknologi BTP DAS Surakarta, Nomor VII, 1, 2001

Abstract

There was an interesting phenomenon in the forest of RPH Besali, part of BKPH Kates, KPH Padangan. Although the lands of forest were critical, the farmers were still interested to involve in the forestry programs (Taungya System) offered by Perhutani.  The aims of this research were to examine the composition of the forestry farmers' sources of income, poverty level, and their income distribution. Research method applied in this research was survey method.  Data were collected with the use of a questionnaire given to 30 forestry farmers. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and gini ratio. The result revealed that: (1) the average of total land holding was 0.691 hectare.  Meanwhile, the average of land holding based on the types of lands were 0.187 hectare for home garden, 0.087 hectare for dry land, 0.325 hectare for shared land, and 0.092 hectare for flood plain, (2) the average of forestry farmers' total income was 2.269.471,00 Rupiahs per annum. The most contributor was livestock husbandry income (51%). The contrary was true for shared land (69%), (3) the source of income came from farming in the flood plain only contributed about 7 percent of total income.  Nevertheless, it could provide income for forestry farmers continuously, (4) the ratio of forestry farmers' income and poverty line was 110.08 % and categorized as poor farmers, and (5) the coefficient of gini ratio was 0.6, indicated that there was a wide gap of income-among forestry farmers.

Keywords : forestry farmer, income, and flood plain

40.    Farida, Sumaryati dan Triwilaida

TINGKAT ADOPSI TEKNOLOGI USAHA TANI KONSERVASI TANAMAN LORONG : Studi Kasus di Kabupaten Boyolali (Farmer's Adoption on Alley Cropping as Conservation Farming : A Case Study in Boyolali Districts)

Buletin Teknologi BTP DAS Surakarta, Nomor VII, 1, 2001

Abstract

Improper land management will effect land deterioration, furthermore it will cause critical land.  One approach in solving the soil problem is application of soil conservation technique which have to be accepted and profitable for the farmers. In order to know how far the farmer could accept the technology on introducing alley cropping as a conservation farming through developing demonstration plots at Kayen village, Juwangi sub district, Boyolali regency was done. Data were collected using questionnaire given to 30 farmers (participant farmers and impact farmers) as respondents and field observation. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive quantitative method. The results revealed that the participant farmers had a higher knowledge than there of impact farmers, and both reached "willing to do level" (mau), no one of them had  “able to do level" (mampu).  In order to increase adoption level, the farmers need intensive extension from both field workers and progressive farmer to guide them cotintinuously.

Keywords : adoption level, conservation farming, alley cropping

41.    Fitri Nurfatriani dan Doddy S. Sukadri

PENGELOLAAN HUTAN DI MASA DEPAN: BERDASARKAN PARADIGMA PEMBANGUNAN KEHUTANAN DI ABAD 21 (Forest Management in the Future : Based on Forestry Development Paradigm in the 21 th Century)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol.2, No. 2, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Sumber daya hutan Indonesia memiliki peranan penting dalam menghasilkan devisa negara.  Pada masa-masa awal pembangunan, eksploitasi sumber daya hutan hanya berorientasi pada timber based management yang menitikberatkan pada manfaat ekonomis semata. Memasuki abad 21, pembangunan kehutanan Indonesia dihadapkan pada permasalahan yang makin kompleks. Salah satu permasalahan yang dihadapi adalah masalah deforestasi hutan dengan laju yang tinggi berdasarkan data Ditjen RLPS pada tahun 2000 mencapai 1,6 juta hektar/tahun.  Dengan laju kerusakan yang tinggi tersebut luas hutan Indonesia mengalami penurunan yang signifikan, hal tersebut mengakibatkan sumber daya hutan Indonesia mengalami penurunan potensi yang sangat berarti. Berdasarkan pertimbangan di atas, diperlukan suatu pemikiran yang serius mengenai pengelolaan hutan di masa kini dan masa yang akan datang. Pengelolaan hutan di masa yang akan datang harus sejalan dengan arah pembangunan kehutanan di abad 21 yang telah bergeser dari orientasi ekonomi ke arah pembangunan kehutanan yang berorientasikan pada resource and community based development, yang dijabarkan sebagai berikut : 1) Perubahan Orientasi Produksi Kayu dari Hutan Alam ke Hutan Tanaman; 2) Perubahan Orientasi dari Hasil Hutan Kayu ke Hasil Hutan Non Kayu Dan Jasa; 3) Pergeseran Pola Pengusahaan Hutan dari Konglomerasi ke Peningkatan Peran Masyarakat; 4) Perubahan Bentuk Pengelolaan Hutan dari Optimasi Produksi Log ke Optimasi Fungsi Hutan; dan 5) Pergeseran Kewenangan Pengelolaan Hutan dari Sentralisasi ke Desentralisasi.

Kata kunci : pengelolaan, pembangunan, hutan, paradigma

Summary

Indonesia forest resources has meaningful role in order to gain the income for the country.  In the beginning of the development era in Indonesia, forest resources exploitation is oriented to the timber based management, which is more focus on economic benefit. In 21th century, Indonesia forestry development is faced to the complex problem, one of these problems is forest deforestation with high rate that is 1.6 millions hectares/years based on Ditjen RLPS data in 2000.  It is causing the significantly decreasing of Indonesian forest and also effecting to the decreasing of its potential. Based on this consideration, it needs the serious thought concerning the forest management currently and in the future. Forest management in the future must be managed agree with forestry development paradigm in the 21th century which is oriented to the resources and community based development, those are : 1) The changing of wood production orientation from natural forest to the plantation forest, 2) The changing of orientation from wood forest product to the non wood forest product, 3) The changing of forest concession from conglomeration to the enhance of people role, 4) The changing of forest management form, from optimized log production to the optimized forest function, 5) The changing of forest management authority from centralization to the decentralization.

Keywords : management, development, forest, paradigm

42.    Gunardjo Tjakrawarsa

MODEL AGROFORESTRY DI DAS MAMASA SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGAMANAN WADUK BAKARU, PROPINSI SULAWESI SELATAN (Agrotorestry Model on Mamasa Watershed As An Alternative for Protecting Bakaru DAM, Province of Sulawesi Selatan)

Buletin Teknologi Pengelolaan DAS UP hal 13-26 Th 2001

Summary

The experiment was conducted in Salo Bue Pambe, Village of Rante Puang Sub Regency Mamasa, Regency Polewali Mamasa to compare the rate of run off and erosion of four agroforestry models.  The models were evaluated in Plot 22 x 4 m using drum collector.  Four models being evaluated were M1 = (Coffee, chocolate, gamal, lamtoro, bench terrace) M2 = (Coffee, Chocolate, dadap, gamal); M3 = Coffee, gamel, cassava, dadap, maize); Control = alang-alang in two replications.

The result of the experiment showed that : (1) The rate of run off and erosion of control were the lowest, (2) M3 (Coffee, gamel, ubi kayu, dadap and corn) could be recommended as an alternative for protecting Bakaru Dam.

Keywords : konservasi tanah, vegetatif, teras bangku, limpasan permukaan dan erosi

43.    Gunardjo Tjakrawarsa, Budi Hadi Narendra

EVAPOTRANSPIRASI BEBERAPA JENIS VEGETASI LOKAL DI SUB SUB DAS MELUHU, SUB DAS KONAWEHA-LAHUMBUTI, SULAWESI TENGGARA (Evaporation of local vegetation at Meluhu Sub-sub Watershed, Konaweha-Lahumbuti Sub Watershed, Sulawesi Tenggara)

Buletin Teknologi Pengelolaan DAS UP  NO. 7 hal 1-11 2001

Summary

Study on evapotranspiration of local vegetation was carried out at Meluhu Sub-sub Watershed, Konaweha-Lahumbuti Sub Watershed, Sulawesi Tenggara from September up to December 2000.  The aim of this study was to evaluate transpiration of local vegetation and evaporation rate.  The study was performed on two pots (5 liters volume) for each species. Difference of weighing of pot in the morning and afternoon of each species was weight of water that evaporated.  The local species was planted on two pots and weighed on the morning and afternoon everyday.

The result showed that Bolo-bolo (Adinandra subangulata Kobuski) had the maximum evapotranspiration 4422,6 mm/year on the other hand Orodu (Astronia atroviridis Man sf.) had the minimum rate 871,1 mm/year. Temperature and physiological condition of vegetation affected the evapotranspiration rate.

Keywords : evapotranspirasi, vegetasi lokal, suhu dan kelembaban relatif , modifikasi lisimeter

44.    Gusmailina, Gustan Pari, Sri Komarayati, dan Tati Rostiwati

ALTERNATIF ARANG AKTIF SEBAGAI SOIL CONDITIONING PADA TANAMAN (Alternative on the utilization of activated bamboo and candle nut charcoal as a plant's soil conditioning)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 3, Tahun 2001

Summary

This paper deals with experimental results of utilizing activated charcoal of bamboo and candle nut as a plant's soil conditioning.  In this regard the plant species for the experiment was Eucalyptus urophylla with respect to the growth of its seedlings. Further, this experiment was intended to evaluate the effect of activated charcoal to as added to the media of Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings on their growth, and to asses the role of activated charcoal in improving soil fertility.

The media for the seedling growth consisted of top soil mixed with activated charcoal of either bamboo or candlenut, compost, and mycorrhiza. The mixture was manipulated into various composition and further regarded as a treatment. The media consisting of only topsoil was also used as a control.

The parameters as observed were number of leaves, increase in height of Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings, weight and dry weight of plant, weight of root portion infected by mycorrhiza, and weight ratio of the top to root portion of the plant (T/R ratio).  Further, the analyses of nutrients in the media consisted of N,P,K, Ca, and Mg contents before and after experiment.

Result showed that the media containing activated charcoal of bamboo are more preferable than that of candlenut, this is because the former media could stimulate the increase in the height of plant seedlings by 27 percent, enhance the additional number of leaves by 29, increase the T/R ratio by 28 percent, and provide better mycorrhyzza growth than the latter media (i.e. containing activated charcoal of candlenut). Further, when the media containing top soil and activated charcoal of bamboo were added with compost, it could stimulate the growth in 4.8 times as much as height of E. urophylla plant.

Keywords  :  activated charcoal, bamboo, candle nut, soil conditioning, Eucalyptus urophylla

Ringkasan

Dalam tulisan ini akan dikemukakan hasil penelitian pendahuluan mengenai pemanfaatan arang aktif bambu dan kemiri sebagai soil conditioning pada tanaman Eucalyptus urophylla. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan arang aktif terhadap dan peranan arang aktif sebagai pembangun

Perlakuan komposisi media semai yang diramu/diberikan dalam penelitian ini merupakan campuran dari arang aktif kompos, mikoriza dan top soil serta kontrol.  Parameter yang diamati adalah jumlah daun, tinggi tanaman, berat basah dan kering tanaman, berat akar yang terinfeksi mikoriza, berat bagian atas dan bawah. Analisis kandungan hara media sapih yang diperiksa adalah NPK, Ca dan Mg sebelum dan sesudah percobaan.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian arang aktif bambu dapat digunakan sebagai campuran media pertumbuhan anakan Eucalyptus urophylla karena dapat meningkatkan pertambahan tinggi anakan Eucalyptus urophylla sebesar 27%, jumlah pertambahan daun 29%, nilai dan persentase perbandingan antara top (bahagian atas tanaman) dan root (akar tanaman) T/R rasio sebesar 28% serta aktivitas mikoriza yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan arang aktif kemiri. Pemberian arang aktif bambu yang dicampur dengan kompos dapat meningkatkan pertambahan tinggi tanaman sebesar 4,8 kali.

Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disarankan untuk mempercepat pertumbuhan tanaman E. urophylla media tanam sebaiknya ditambah arang aktif sebanyak 30-40%.

Kata kunci : arang aktif, bambu , kemiri, soil conditioning, Eucalyptus urophylla

45.    Gustan Pari dan llah Sailah

PEMBUATAN ARANG AKTIF DARI SABUT KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN BAHAN PENGAKTIF NH4HCO3 DAN (NH4) 2C03 DOSIS RENDAH (The possible manufacture of activated charcoal from palm-tree bast at low dosages of activating agents : NH4HCO3 and (NH4)2C03)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 4, Tahun 2001

Summary

This report deals with experimental study on the utilization of palm-tree bast as raw material for activated charcoal. In this regard, the main aim was to study the effect of concentrations of vaporized NH4HCO3 and (NH4)2C03 solutions as activating agents (in percentages) on properties of activated charcoal, and to evaluate its use for purifying ground water. In this regard, the vapors might consist of NH3, C02 and H20 The manufacture of activated charcoal involved two consecutive stages, i.e. charcoaling and activation. The charcoaling was performed on the palm-tree bast in a retort equipped with electrical heater, followed by the activation stage whereby the inside retort temperature was increased to 8500c At this temperature, the vapors of both NH4HCO3 and (NH4)2C03 were each passed into the retort at several concentrations (i.e. 0.0%, 0.01%, 0.025%, 0.075%, and 0.1% of either vapor) for 90 minutes at pressure of 0.05 kg/cm2 ; and on completion the resulting activated charcoal was examined of their inherent properties.

It was found out that the activated charcoal with NH4HC03 vapor at 0.01 % revealed the most satisfactory properties with respect to its selection for purifying the ground water. The yield of activated charcoal at this vapor percentage was 15.99%, moisture content 0.10%, ash content, 31.85%, volatile matter 24.85%, carbon content 43.21%, adsorptive capacity of benzene 13.33%, Of CHCl3 16.28%, of  NH3 26.65%, Of CCl4 26.64%, of iodine 799.5 mg/g, of methylene blue 136.10 mg/g and surface area 463,41m2/g.

The ground water after being purified with this selected activated charcoal revealed the improvement on its qualities, as shown by the decreases in Fe from 4.919 mg/l to 0. 00 mg/l, Zn from 0.031 mg/l to 0,00 mg/l, Mn from 7.780 mg/l  to 6.16 mg/l;,. the increase in pH from 6.99 to 8.00 and the more transparent in its color.

Keywords : palm tree fiber, benzene, iodine, activated charcoal, water, Fe, Zn, Mn

Ringkasan

Dalam tulisan ini dikemukakan hasil penelitian tentang pembuatan arang aktif dari sabut kelapa sawit dengan cara aktivasi uap kimia.  Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kualitas arang aktif dari sabut kelapa sawit dengan pemakaian bahan pengaktif NH4HCO3 dan (NH4)2C03 dosis rendah serta untuk penjernihan air sumur.

Proses pembuatan arang aktif dilakukan di dalam tungku yang terbuat dari baja tahan karat yang dilengkapi dengan pemanas listrik.. Pada suhu 8500C. Apabila telah mencapai suhu tersebut dilakukan proses aktivasi dengan mengalirkan uap larutan NH4HCO3 dan (NH4)2C03 selama 90 menit pada taraf konsentrasi 0.0 ; 0.01 ; 0.025 ; 0.050 ; 0.075 ; dan 0,1%. Arang aktif dengan kualitas terbaik diujicobakan untuk menjernihkan air sumur.

Kualitas arang aktif yang terbaik diperoleh dari sabut kelapa sawit yang diaktivasi oleh NH4HCO3 0,01% yang menghasilkan rendemen arang aktif sebesar 15,99%, kadar air 0,10%, zat terbang 24,85%, abu 31,85%, karbon 43,21%, daya serap terhadap C6H6 13,33%, CHCl3 16,28%, NH3 26,65%, CCl4 26,64%, I2 799,5 mg/g dan daya serap terhadap metilin biru 124,97 mg/g serta luas permukaan sebesar 463,41m2/g.

Arang aktif sabut kelapa sawit ini dapat menjernihkan air sumur yang ditunjukkan dengan berkurangnya kandungan Fe menjadi 0,00 mg/l dari 4,919 mg/l, Zn menjadi 0,00 mg/l dari 0, 031 mg/l  dan Mn menjadi 6,160 mg/l  dari 7,78 mg/l, pH menjadi 8,00 dari 6,99 serta warna air menjadi bening.

Kata kunci  :  sabut kepala sawit, benzena, iodium, arang aktif, air, Fe, Zn, Mn.

46.    Gustan Pari, Dadang Setiawan dan Saepuloh

ANALISIS KOMPONEN KIMIA DARI KAYU KURANG DIKENAL DARI KALIMANTAN TIMUR (Chemical component analysis from lesser known wood species from East Kalimantan)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 4, Tahun 2001

Summary

This paper reported the results of chemical components of several lesser known wood species from East Kalimantan. The wood species were Kayu Arang (Diospyros macrophylla), Nyaling (Mastixia trichotama), Penjalin (Drypetes), Lansat Hutan (Lansium) and Kayu Gading (Koilodepes).

The analysis were comprised of the determination of holocellulose, hemicelluloce, a-celluloce, lignin, pentosan, ash content and silicate content.  The solubilities in alcohol benzene, cold water, hot water, and solubility in NaOH 1% were also covered.  These analyses pertaining to the basic wood characteristics were conducted to assess the ultimate utilization of the wood species as such, especially for pulp manufacture.

The result showed that holocelluluse content ranged from 71.17 -  81.20%, hemicelluloce from 27.51- 35.88%, a-celluloce from 43.15 - 48.73%, lignin from 22.73 - 33.60%, pentosan from 15.28 - 18.79% ash content from 0. 54 - 1.34%, and the silicate content from 0.12 - 0.49%.

Furhter, the solubilities in cold water ranged from 1.79 - 3.24%, hot water from 5.50 - 7.21%, alcohol benzene from 1.62 - 3.65% and solubility in NaOH 1% from 14.21 - 16.90%.

Based on results of chemical analysis, especially with respect to holocellulose, lignin and pentosan content, most wood species are suitable as raw material for pulp and paper industry. For lansat hutan (Lansium sp), kayu arang (Diospiros macrophylla) and gading (Koilodepes) species, their considerable extractive content as shown by high solubilities in the organic solvent should be considered since it could reveal high wax content as well.

Keywords : wood, chemical, lignin, holocellulose, pentosan, East Kalimantan.

Ringkasan

Tulisan ini mengemukakan hasil analisis komponen kimia kayu dari jenis kayu kurang dikenal.  Semua jenis kayu yang diteliti berasal dari Kalimantan Timur.  Jenis kayu tersebut adalah Kayu Arang (Diospyros macrophylla), Nyaling (Mastixia trichotama), Penjalin (Drypetes), Lansat Hutan (Lansium) dan Kayu Gading (Koilodepes).

Analisa yang dilakukan adalah penetapan kadar holoselulosa, hemiselulosa, a-selulosa, lignin, pentosan, abu, silikat, kelarutan dalam air dingin, air panas, alkohol benzena, dan kelarutan dalam NaOH 1%. Analisa ini merupakan dasar untuk menetapkan kegunaan kayu tersebut terutama untuk dipakai sebagai bahan baku pulp.

Hasil analisis memperlihatkan bahwa kadar holoselulosa berkisar antara 71,17 - 81,20%, hemiselulosa antara 27,51 - 35,88%, a-selulosa antara 43,15 - 48,73%, lignin antara 22,73 - 33,60%, pentosan antara 15,28 - 18,79%, kadar abu antara 0,54 - 1,34%, kadar silikat antara 0,12 - 0,49%.  Kelarutan dalam air dingin antara 1,79 - 3,24%, air panas antara 5,50- 7,21%, alkohol benzena antara  1,62 - 3,65% dan kelarutan dalam NaOH 1% antara 14,21- 16,90%.

Berdasarkan hasil analisis komponen kimia kayu terutama dari kadar holoselulosa, lignin, dan pentosan, semua jenis kayu yang diteliti cukup baik untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku pulp dan kertas.  Khusus untuk kayu lansat hutan, kayu arang dan kayu gading perlu diperhatikan zat ekstraktifnya yang cukup tinggi.

Kata kunci  :  kayu, kimia, lignin, holoselulosa, pentosan, Kalimantan Timur.

47.      H. Yudono SHN

AN APPLICATION OF AGNPS (AGRICULTURAL NON POINT SOURCES POLLUTION MODEL)  FOR EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY IN GOBEH SUB WATERSHED, CENTRAL JAVA)

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2001

Abstract

Prediction of the impacts of improper land use practices on watershed environment, up to now are carried out using conventional methods (direct field measurement). Surface flow and sedimentation rate of land use pattern are measured in observation plots. In the case of large area, those methods are not efficient in term of cost, manpower, and time needed. Due to the need of measurement methods considering complexity of watershed problem, mathematical models were develop based on functional relation among influencing factors in the watershed. AGNPS Model (Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution Model) is mathematical model based on functional relationship of the factors in watershed which simulates the behavior of surface runoff, sediment, and transport of nutrient all at once in the watershed dominated by agriculture activities.

The research conducted in Gobeh Sub Watershed is aimed to identify and evaluate impact of land-use practices on stream-flow quality and farmer income, and propose land management alternatives producing better stream-flow quality and higher farmer income. The research is based on a perception that water-yield of such watershed resulted from integrated process and caused by many interfering factors. The methods used AGNPS models to identify and evaluate impact of land-use activities on stream-flow quality, and using survey methods to identify and evaluate impact of land-use activities on raising farm income.

The main target proposed in managing land-use impact were reducing crop-land erosion rate, converting grassland to productive land, generating economic value of sugar-reed land and crop-land, and rice-field bench terrace improvement.  From the land management simulation applying three alternatives, the third alternative, combination of Paraserianthes sp. with cover-crop planting in crop-land and rice-field bench terrace improvement, was the best alternative in reducing negative impact on stream-flow quality and raising farm income.

Keywords : Watershed Management, Impact Evaluation , AGNPS Model

48.    Hariyatno Dwiprabowo, Suwidji Basuki , Herry Purnomo dan Haryono

PENENTUAN LUAS OPTIMAL HUTAN DI DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI DENGAN GOAL PROGRAMMING DAN AHP SUATU PENDEKATAN MODEL (Determination of Optimum Forest Cover in The Watershed Using Goal Programming  and AHP: A Modeling Approach)

Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Vol. 2 No. 1 (2001) pp. 79 – 98

Abstrak

Untuk menjaga fungsi ekologi, ekonomi dan sosial budaya. keberadaan hutan mullak dipertahankan pada suatu daerah aliran sungai (DAS).  Menurut Undang-undang Pokok Kehutanan no. 41 luas hutan yang perlu dipertahankan minimal 30% dan luas daratan. Namun Demikian hngga kini masih menjadi pertanyaan berapa luas hamparan yang perlu ditutup oleh hutan dalam suatu DAS sehingga fungsi-fungsi tersebut dapat dipenuhi.

Tulisan ini merupakan hasil studi yang dimaksudkan unluk mencari pendekatan dan metoda penentuan luas optimal hutan pada suatu daerah aliran sungai (DAS) di Pulau Jawa.  Studi ini menggabungkan metoda AHP dan Goal Programming dalam mencari solusi yang optimal dalam tata guna lahan. Dari pengelolaan DAS yang memiliki berbagai tujuan yakni : teraturnya tata air berkurangnya erosi tingginya produksi pertanian, perkebunan dan kayu, stakeholders (pemangku kepentingan) menganggap tertarurnya tata air merupakan tujuan terpenting. Studi kasus yang dilakukan di DAS Citanduy ini menunjukan bahwa berbagai alternatif tataguna lahan dapat dibankitkan salah satu alternatif menghasilkan luas penutupan hutan (meliputi Hutan Negara) sebesar 20.7% atau 5% lebih luas dari tata guna saat ini. Tingkat erosi menurun sebesar 20,7% dan limpasan air permukaan turun 15%. Tingkat erosi dan limpasan air ini masih jauh diatas ambang batas toleransi.

Kata kunci : DAS, goal programing

49.    Hendro Prahasto & Siti Isfianti

ANALISIS KEBIJAKAN KEMUNGKINAN PENERAPAN SISTEM LELANG DALAM RANGKA MENINGKATKAN NILAI KAYU (HUTAN) (A Policy Analysis on the Possibility of Auction System Implementation To Increase Wood (Forest) Value)

Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Vol. 2 No. 1 (200 1) pp. 31 - 51

Abstrak

Lelang merupakan institusi pasar yang mempertemukan penjual dan pembeli pada saat dan tempat tertentu dengan cara pembentukan harga yang kompetilif Lelang kayu telah lama dilakukan oleh PT. Perhutani, sedangkan belong kayu yang berasal dari luar Jawa masih terbatas pada kayu-kayu yang bersifat ilegal.  Dalam proses lelang kayu ilegal melibatkan banyak instansi sehingga menimbulkan biaya transaksi yang cukup besar.  Dengan demikian harga lelang yang terbentuk menjadi rendah sehingga tujuan diadakan lelang kayu tidak tercapai sepenuhnya. Pelaksanaan lelang HPH lebih didorong karena adanya desakan dari International Monetary Fund (IMF) kepada Pemerintah Indonesia yang tertuang dalam Letter of Intens (LoI). Dalam prakteknya sistem lelang HPH mempunyai banyak kelemahan karena terbatasnya informasi yang

Dimuat dalam dokumen lelang dan lemahnya sistem penyelenggaraan lelang. Harga dasar lelang hanya ditetapkan berdasarkan pada nilai kayu saja, dimana nilai tersebut hanya merupakan sebagian kecil dari seluruh nilai aset lain sumberdaya hutan. Dalam seumberdaya hutan masih terkandung nilai aset lain yang jauh lebih besar seperti hasil hutan non-kayu, keaneka ragaman  hayati, jasa lingkungan, fungsi konservasi dan lainnya. Selain itu jangka waktu pengusahaan HPH cukup panjang sehingga memiliki unsur ketidakpastian yang tinggi sehingga terjadi under valued atas harga lelang HPH tersebut. Lelang HPH juga tidak akan efisien ditinjau dari aspek manajeman dan pemerintah negara. Lelang  yang masih memungkinkan selain lelang kayu adalah lelang tagakan pada blok-blok tebang. Besarnya nilai areal blok tebang sangat ditentukan oleh tinggi rendahnya potensi tegakan dan banyak sedikitnya jenis kayu yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi.

Kata kunci : kebijakan, lelang, nilai tegakan dan nilai kayu.

50.    Hendromono

BATAS TOLERANSI BIBIT GMELINA (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) DAN MAHONI (Swietenia macrophylla King) TERHADAP KANDUNGAN GARAM PADA AIR PENYIRAMAN (Tolerate limitation of gmelina (Gmelina arborea Roxb.)  and mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla King) seedlings to salt concentration in water irrigation)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 627, Tahun 2001

Summary

Nursery seedlings require continuous supply of water for their growth and other physiological processes. Quality of water used for irrigation may affect the growth and quality of the seedlings. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the tolerate limit of salt in water irrigation for gmelina (Gmelina arborea Roxb) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seedlings.

The completely randomized block design was used in this experiment with five replications. The treatments were water irrigation without salt (Aa), 500 ppm salt (A1) 1000 ppm salt (A2), 200O ppm salt (A3) and 4000 ppm salt (A4).

The results showed that salt concentration in water irrigation affected the growth, morphological quality and survival percentage of gmelina seedlings, but only affected the height growth of mahogany either in the greenhouse or in the nursery. The growth, morphological quality and survival percentage of gmelina seedlings decreased with increasing salt content in water irrigation. The tolerable salt content in water for irrigating of gmelina seedlings in the greenhouse was 500 ppm or less, whereas for watering of gmelina seedlings in the nursery was 1000 ppm or less.  The tolerable salt content in water for irrigation of mahogany seedlings in the greenhouse or nursery with 30% shading intensity was 2000 ppm or less.

Keywords  :  gmelina, mahogany, salt, irrigation
Kata kunci  :  gmelina, mahoni, garam, penyiraman

51.    Hendromono, 2001

PENGARUH OLAH TANAH MINIMUM DAN PEMUPUKAN TERHADAP PERSEN JADI DAN RIAP RATAAN TAHUNAN TANAMAN Gmelina arborea Roxb.  DI HUTAN SEKUNDER (Effects of minimum image and fertilization on the survival and mean annual increment of Gmelina arborea Roxb. plantation in secondary forest)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, Puslitbang Hutan & KA, No. 625 Tahun 2001, pp 31

Summary

Site preparation for Gmelina arborea Roxb. plantation in unproductive secondary forest area was not permitted by slash and burn system since 1995.  Alternaive of land clearing system by minimum tillage and application of fertilizer will be investigated in this experiment.

A split-plot design was chosen with site preparation as a main plot and fertilization as a sub plot.  Each treatment combination consisted of 10 plants and replicated 5 times.

Results indicated that mechanical land clearing system by using bulldozer was more beneficial than slash and burn system or strip system, based on its mean annual volume increment. number of branches and the fire risk G. arborea species grew slowly in Muara Duo, North Lampung which the soil has relatively low macro nutrient content and shallow soil depth. Fertilization with urea or KCL fertilizer was less effective when the soil in dry condition.  It was recommended to take care the G. arborea plants by thinning, mulching and fertilizing to increase the annual volume increment

Keywords : G. arborea site preparation, minimum tillage, fertilization
Kata kunci : G. arborea, persiapan lahan, olah tanah minimum, pemupukan

52.    Hendromono, Ari Wibowo, Ign. Purwanto dan Durahim

PENYIAPAN LAHAN TANPA BAKAR UNTUK TANAMAN MAHONI DI AREAL YANG DIDOMINASI ALANG-ALANG (Land Preparation without Burning for Mahoni Plantation in Alang-alang Dominated Area)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 629, Tahun 2001

Summary

A study of land preparation system and initial fertilization was carried out in alang-alang dominated area of Way Hanakau industrial timber plantation. The purpose of the research is to investigate the optimum land preparation system and fertilization of mahogany plantation in alang-alang dominated area.

A split-plot design was applied for seven systems of land preparation, namely: without land preparation (Control), manual with strip small heap, manual with mulch, manual and dump for compost, mechanical land clearing, mechanical and once plowing, mechanical and twice plowing; and three fertilizations, namely : without fertilization, 1.5 litre of compost per plant and 75 g NPK fertilizer per plant.  Each treatment combination consisted of 50 mahogany young plants and replicated three times.

The results showed that land preparation treatment significantly affected mahogany plant growth and survival, whereas initial fertilization did not affect both parameters. There suitable land preparation of mahogany plant in alang-alang dominated area is mechanical land preparation and once plowing.  This system may increase the height and diameter growth and reduce plant mortality after one year in the field. It also reduce alang-alang development, saving time and worker but more expensive than manual system.

Keywords : land preparation, fertilization, mahogany
Kata kunci  :  penyiapan lahan, pemupukan, mahoni

53.     Henry Silka lnnah, Edy Rosariyanto, Hugo Yoteni and Henk van Mastrigt, 2001

KERAGAMAN JENIS KUPU-KUPU SIANG DI YONGSU, CAGAR ALAM PEGUNUNGAN CYCLOPS BAGIAN UTARA, IRIAN JAYA (Diversity of  Day-Butterfly at Yongsu, North Cyclops Mountain Natural Reserve, Irian Jaya)

Buletin Penelitian BPK Manokwari, Vol. 6 No.1 Tahun. 2001, pp 33

Summary

Sixty six species of day-butterflies were collected fom 23rd to 29th August, 2000 in different habitat at Yongsu and Yemang, Cyclops Mountain Natural Reserve Irian Jaya, using the following collecting methods : sweeping of butterflies in observation sites during daytime. The results of this study indicate that eight families with 66 (sixty-six) species i.e. Papilionidae (7 species), Pieridae (6 species), Donaldae (6 species).  Nymphalidae (18 species), Amathuiidae (4 species), Satyridae (10 species), Lycaenidae (14 species).  Riodinidae (1 species), and 1 new species was recorded from Cyclops is Elymnias paradoxa (Satyridae).

Keywords : Day-butterfly, diversity, Cyclops Mountain Natural Reserve

54.    Herman Daryono dan Rusmana

UJICOBA PENANAMAN JENIS Eucalyptus urograndis ASAL KULTUR JARINGAN DI BANJARBARU KALIMANTAN SELATAN ( Planting trial of Eucalyptus urograndis derived from tissue cultureat Banjarbaru South Kalimantan)

Buletin Teknologi BTR Banjarbaru No.7 hal 1-10 Th 2001

Abstract

Successful plantation establishment on degraded land depend on selection of proper tree species characterized by ecologically, economically and socially feasible.  The most essential thing to achieve plantation with has high quality and productivity are improved propagules and proper silvicultural operations.

Eucalyptus urograndis seedlings derived from in-vitro culture of five clones, i.e. A(1821), B(1814), C(1820), D(1840) and E(1841) were planted on the associated lathosol and yellowish red podsolic soil type wich has poor soil nutrition at silviculture laboratory area at Banjarbaru.  The site was prepared mechanically by a tractor.  The seedling of 3 months old was planted at the distance of 3 x 3 m and fertilized with NPK (15:15:15) 100 gr for each seedling one month after planting.

The seedling was evaluated for survival and growth at the age of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 months after planting.  At the age of 12 months the survival rate of all clones were high (95-100%).  The mean diameter and height growth of all clones was 3.3 m and 5.4 cm respectively.  In term of diameter and height growth, the best clone was E (1841) with the 5.4 cm diameter and 3.4 m height.

Keywords :  Eucalyptus urograndis, clones, tissue-culture, growth, Banjarbaru

55.    Herman Remetwa and Totok Mei Untarto, 2001

POLA TATA RUANG DAN ZONASI KAWASAN HUTAN DALAM RANGKA MENDUKUNG KAPET BIAK (Land Use and Forest Zoning in Supporting Integrated Economic Development Zone (KAPET)  Biak)

Buletin Penelitian BPK Manokwari, Vol. 6 No.1 Tahun. 2001, pp 23

Summary

Research on review of forest land use planning had been conducted at some conservation area in Biak Island. The research objective are to find data and information that can be used in reconstruction of land use planning by reviewing zoning and forest function.  Systematic strip sampling is used for collecting data of vegetation and semi-structured interview is used for collecting data of social economic condition.  Research result showed that some conservation areas in Biak are not legitimed yet.  The condition of forest in the Protection forest is mainly still good.  The local people mostly manage conservation area that located nearby village and resettlement for agriculture lend (shifting cultivation) and fuel wood.  In this case the government need to preserve and legitimate such area as agriculture lard because mostly people in Biak is farmer.  In order to face future development, especially in supporting Integrated Economic Development Zone (IEDZ) of Biak, land use planning in this area could be formulated as follows : (a) production forest and limited production forest are recommended to be changed as conservation area and area for other purpose, (b) in the border, line of protection/conservation forest and in the road border are recommended to be preserved as limited area for agricutultural land. The conservation area that is overlapping with IEDZ area could be freed according to the development necessity, In formulating of zonation and planning of land use in Biak it should conder, the local people involvement in order to run away from conflict in the future.

Keywords : land use planning, zoning, forest utilization, conservation area, integrated, Economic Development Zone (IEDZ)

56.    Hero Dien P. Kartiko, Danu, Wasis Suwoyo, Keri P. Nugroho

MEMBUAT BIBIT TANAMAN LANGKA: RAMIN 1Gonystylusbancanus(Miq.)Kurzl, MELALUI STEK (Production of planting materials Of endangered species : ramin (Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz), by means of cuttings)

Tek. Perbenihan (Seed Tech.  Bull.) Vol. 8, NO. 1, 2001 hal 41-47

Summary

Cuttings of ramin (Gonyslylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz) can be produced from shoots (containing apical buds) that were collected from 8-year-old trees.  After nine months in rooting chamber, percentages of survived cuttings and rooted cuttings were 40-48%, respectively, and root length was 2,9-6.4 cm. Although application of growth substances + fungicide did not affect these characters, it apparently increased the amount of roots and the amount of cuttings that were free from fungal infestation.

Increase of rooting percentage appears to be possible by improving watering methods and hygienic conditions of the surrounding rooting chamber

Keywords  :  ramin (Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kum), cuttings
Kata kunci : ramin (Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz), stek

57.    Hero Dien Pancang Kartiko

PENGUMPULAN DAN PENGOLAHAN LEPAS PANEN BENIH TANAMAN HUTAN (Field Collection and Post-Harvest Treatments of Forest Tree Planting Materials)

Tekno Benih Vol. VI  No.1 hal 7-14 Th 2001

Summary

Application of proper procedure in field collection and post-harvest treatments Of planting materials is a substantial matter for supporting establishment of productive planted forests.

With desiccation tolerant or orthodox seeds, treatments required for preserving their viability comprise: reduction of their moisture content up to 5-8%, and storing them in cool (i.e. 18 or 40C) and dry place.  With desiccation intolerant or recalcitrant seeds, however, seed drying is not appropriate.  The seeds have to be sown immediately after harvest.  If this is not possible, temporary, storage can be done by placing them in polyethylene bags under temperature of 180C.

For vegetative propagated materials, points to be considered include: goals to be achieved, physiological and chronological age, and genetic stability of the materials.  To avoid long-term failure with the use of vegetative materials, it appears compulsory to carry out limited field trials prior to a large-scale deployment of the materials for establishment of planted forests.

Keywords : field collection, post harvest treatments, planting materials, forest tree
Kata kunci : 
pengumpulan benih, penanganan pasca panen, benih, tanaman hutan

58.    Hunggul Yudono SHN & Gunardio Tjakrawarsa

DAMPAK KEGIATAN PERTAMBANGAN EMAS RAKYAT DI AREAL KERJA PT.  INHUTANI I SATUAN WILAYAH SULAWESI UTARA (The Impact of Traditional Gold Mining Activity in The Concession Area of PT.  INHUTANI I, Sulawesi Utara Area Unit)

Buletin Teknologi Pengelolaan DAS hal 23-47 th 2001

Summary

Started from 1994, Ministry of Forestry gave authority to PT INHUTANI I to manage after logging forest area of PT Bina Wana Sejahtera of 131.000 ha.  The problems to be faced were the existence of illegal traditional gold mining activity (underground mining) inside of forest concession which was predicted causing environment quality degradation.

This study aimed to., 1) identify positive and negative impact of the gold mining activity on the existence of PT.  INHUTANI I related to asset and management system, on the bio-physical condition of the forest area, and on the socio-economical condition of community surrounding forest area, 2) propose problem solving attematives.

The method of the study was survey and field observation in order to collect primary and secondary data consisting of bio-physical, and socio-economical data.

Based on impact analysis, illegal mining in PT.  INHUTANI II concession area caused both negative and positive impact Due to the impact lasting period, and the area affected, impacts of traditional underground mining were considered as non-important impact.  The management impact proposed were limitation of mining area, growth centre management, law enforcement, and activating extension activity periodically.

Keywords : traditional mining, impact analysis, impact management

59.    Hunggul Yudono SHN, La Ode Asir

KAJIAN EROSI DAN LIMPASAN PERMUKAAN PADA JALAN HUTAN DI AREAL KERJA PT.  INHUTANI I SATUAN WILAYAH MAROS DAN TANA TORAJA (The Study of Erosion and Surface Run Off on Forest Road in Concession Area of PT.  INHUTANI 1, Maros and Tana Toraja Unit Area)

Buletin Teknologi Pengelolaan DAS UP  NO. 7 hal 12-28, 2001

Summary

This study was carried out by BTPDAS Ujung Pandang in cooperation with PT. INHUTANI I, Sulawesi Selatan for one year in 1998. The observation sites in production forest area of Camba, Maros District and Mangkendek, Tana Toraja Regency, were established to investigate the impact of forest road design and construction on surface runoff and erosion and to examine types of road design in order to find the cheapest cost road design with lowest impact on environment in terms of erosion and surface runoff. The study was pointed on four types of road design in PT. INHUTANI I forest area, respectively : partially paved on wheel position with miscellaneous broken stones (J I), fully paved with gravel (J II), full paved with miscellaneous broken stones (J III), road with no pavement (J IV).

To meet with the objectives of production forest management, in arranging forest road design there should be minimally three considerations i.e : endurance, cost, and its impact on environment

The result of the study showed that related to its endurance, construction cost, and erosion impact, road with gravel paving was the best road type compared with the others.

Keywords  :  forest road design, endurance, construction cost, erosion

60.    I Komang Surata, 2001

PENCANTATAN SERANGAN HAMA KUTU DAUN PADA TANAMAN KEMIRI (ALEURITES MOLLUCANA WILD.) DI PULAU ALOR. PROPINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR. (An observation on the attack of  leaf flea pest on candlenut (Aleurites mollucana Wild) plantation in Alor distric, East Nusa Tenggara Province)

Buletin Penelitian BPK Kupang, Vol. 5 No. 1 Tahun 2001, pp 35

Summary

The study was aimed to determine the leaf flea pest attacking candlenut (Aleurites mollucana Wild) plantation in Alor district.  East Nusa Tenggara Province. An observation was also intended to give suggestion on controlling and reducing the leaf pest invation.

The leaf flea pet was determined by collecting the species in the field and identifying it in the laboratory.  The population and the mean intensity of attacking were counted at 10 percent of sampling trees.          

Field observation found that the leaf flea pest attacking on candlenut was known as Aphis craccivora.  This species cause damage the leaves.  Damage make the leaves become dry up and die off so that fall of leaf . The percentage of damaging to the candlenut reached 12,24 - 53. 42 percents.  There was bio-ht and harm full to the growth of candlenut.  The pest has been attacking highly at Adang.  Otvai and South Alila Villages.

The practical ways for preventing and controlling the pest invation one suggested by removing the infected trees or house pest trees , establishing of polyculture plantation using the insecticides, and the using of parasits such as Coccinella sp.

Keywords : leaf flea pest, damage, host pest trees, parasites

61.    I. Komang Surata, Maman Mansyur Idris.  Tri Pamungkas Y. dan/and Choirul Akhmad

EKSPLORASI BENIH AMPUPU (EUCALYPUS, UROPHYLLA) DI PULAU LOMBLEN DAN PANTAR PROPINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR (Seed exploration of Eucalyptus urophylla in Lomblen and Pantar islands.  East Nusa Tenggara Province)

Buletin Penelitian BPK Kupang, Vol. 5 No. 1 Tahun 2001, pp 1

Summary

Seed exploration of the Eucalyptus urophylla were conducted in natural distribution area in Lomblen and Pantar Islands, East Nusa Tenggara Province.  Collection were made as the genetic data base for the breeding and seed orchard programs aimed at the improvement of Yield and quality of Eucalyptus urophylla wood The tree selection follows the visual system.  Tree selection is planed by appling the mother tree system but due to the field conditions (very uneven stands) this system could not he applied.  In this connection it has been made to choose a tree within the provenance.  The desirable characteristics recorded are as follow : tree number, altitude, height, diameter at breaths height, stem sttightness and branch diameter.

The result of the seed exploration showed that the mature seed collection of E. Urophylla could be done from Juni - July in Lomblen and Pantar islands.  Number of 180 seed lots were successfully collected from 9 provenances Lomblen was represented by: Ille Kerbau, Lewokukung (Ille Kerbau Mountains).  Puor (Labalekang Mountains), Jontana, Bunga Muda (Ile Ape Mountains), While Pantar was represented by Mauta Delaki (Sirung Mountains).  Lalapang (Pintu Mas Mountains), Beangonong (Wasbila Mountains).  The main populations of E. urophylla occur on the mountains on the elevation 500 - 1650 m above see level.  The stands surrounding the Puor (Loniblen island) is the best stand. On the other hand, the seed from Mauta was the best in term of germination percentage and production seed/tree.

Keywords : natural distribution, seed exploration, genetic data base, yield and quality

62.    IB. P. Parthama and L. A. Leefers

MULTI-PERIOD HARVEST SCHEDULING WITH NON-DETERMINISTIC YIELD PREDICTIONS

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2001

Abstract

Chance-constrained programming (CCP) is a technique for incorporating random or risk-based inputs into an optimization model.  Unlike past efforts, this paper applies multi-period CCP to a harvest-scheduling problem.  Specifically, it is applied to a teak forest district which is managed to maximize total net present value while maintaining a relatively stable harvest flow over time.  The random inputs are limited to yield variability due to temporal and spatial aggregations.  For comparison purposes a linear programming (LP) model is first solved.  The nonlinear CCP model is then solved.  Incorporating yield variability with a strict non-declining even-flow condition is infeasible in this case.  The feasible model, which permits specified declines in periodic harvest volumes, leads to a higher total net present value but results in a less smooth harvest flow as compared to the output of the LP counterpart of the model.  With some refinements (e.g., less aggregation, incorporating other non-deterministic elements), the approach is recommended for management of large-scale forest plantations in Indonesia.

Keywords :  harvest scheduling, risk, chance-constrained programming, nonlinear programming, teak forest plantations.

63.    Ign. Purwanto dan Yelin Adalina

PREDIKSI KEBUTUHAN UNSUR HARA PADA LAHAN HUTAN TANAMAN Paraserianthes falcataria (Prediction of nutrients requirement of  Paraserianthes falcataria forest plantation)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 627, Tahun 2001

Summary

Plantation forest programme now a days becoming important in order fulfill the increasing demand of raw material for wood industry.

So plant for usually being managed intensively using monoculture of fast growing forest tree species with high density of trees. An example of the fast growing forest tree species is P. falcataria which were widely planted even trough farmer as social forestry of forest managers in their forest land areas.

While the trees growing fastly, it is predicted that the absorption of nutrient from the soil of forest plantation land will occur in considerable rate too.

How fit they are, the forest plantation managers should precisely know in order to maintain their forest land productivity.

This investigation was conducted to get some solution for the quaetion above, i.e : to predict the rate of soil nutrient uptake by P. falcataria forest stands as a type of the fast growing trees species.

The result showed that types and quantities from the soil absorbed by P. falcataria stands (of woodstem part) until the first brances, of 11,9 - 14,3 cm stem diameter classes, were : potassium (310.19 kg), nitrogen (256.75 kg), calcium (206.69 kg), phosphorus (24.87 kg) and sulphur (5.22 kg) per hectare of forest plantation land of 4 x 4 m spacing.

If whole parts of P. falcataria trees foliage were leaved the field in clear cutting activities at the above growing stage, the soil would receive forest litter bearing nutrients equivalent to 142,63 kg K, 72,04 kg Ca, 49,05 kg N, 8, 10 kg P and 2,465 kg S.

The P. falcataria forest litter (leaves) will also give benefit effect on the soil reaction caused by the neutral level of its pH value, (of : pH 7,19) in contrary Pinus merkusii litter having value pH 4,14 that caused the soil acidity.

It is concluded that for P.falcataria forest plantation the longest amount of nutrients need nutrients for their growth were : potassium (K), followed by nitrogen (N) and then calcium (Ca). Quite different to agricultural crops, phosphoris (P) nutrients were found less important for P. falcataria species.

It is suggested that the forest plantation managers, who choice this tree species for their forest land concessionaires, apply fertilizers or manure minimally in the following dosages; 158 kg K, 107 kg N, 134 kg Ca and 16 kg P per hectare land area after clear cutting if whole foliage parts of the tree leaved on the forest land as a litter.

64.    Iskandar, Sumijarto

STUDI POTENSI PENGEMBANGAN HUTAN RAKYAT JATI DI KABUPATEN BANTAENG, SULAWESI SELATAN (Study Of Social Teak Forest Potencial and Development in Bantaeng Regency, Sulawesi Selatan)

Buletin Teknologi Pengelolaan DAS UP hal 27-46 Th 2001

Summary

South Sulawesi has wide spread enough community forest area. it cover up to 95,594.66 Ha area and spread over 20 districts (BRLKT Wil.  IX, 1996).  There is also critical land of 896,218.2 Ha which is potential for developing community forest. on the other side market demand of leak wood from private teak forest is high.

The aim of this research are to know private teak forest potential, farmer income, strength and weakness of private teak forest development.

Measurement of stand dimension was done to know potention and condition of private teak forest.  PSSEKI method is used to get identity of private teak forest owner via questioner.  The analysis of dates include stand potention estimation, farmer income and determination of strength, weakness, oppotunity and threat

The result showed that private teak forest potention average is 168.53 m3/ha.  The farmer income from 0.25-0.5 ha land ownership was Rp.40,451.67/year. The strength elements of social teak forest development were teak forest potention and general climate condition. The weakness were no Maintenance, forest location spreading, and away from the community, the low price of teak wood, market system, no institusion participation and low income.  The oppoitunity elements were goverment policy which supported the development of private forest and good teak wood local market opportunity.  The threat were : a lot of parasite (Fam. Loranthaceae) and wild grass.

Keywords : social teak forest, stand potention, development

65.   Jasni, Osly Rachman dan Jamaludin Malik

PENENTUAN FAKTOR KONVERSI DALAM PROSES PENGOLAHAN ROTAN SEBAGAI DASAR PEMBAYARAN TARIF IURAN HASIL HUTAN DAN EFISIENSI PRODUKSI (Determining of conversion factor in rattan processing as basic payment for forest product fee and efficiency of production)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 3, Tahun 2001

Summary

Conversion factor is a value representing the conversion in rattan processing.  The convert mainly happened on physical properties such as moisture content and specific gravity. They convert volume and weight. That conversion factor is important to be determined accurately, because it will affect production cost and forest product's fee paid by rattan producer.

Four species of a large and small diameter rattan were studied i.e. Seuti (Calamus ornatus BI.), Bubuay (Plectocomia clongata BI.) Seel (Daemonorops melanochaetes Becc) and Pelah (Daemonorops rubra Bl.). The conversion factor was counted on the basic of weight and volume decreas.

The results indicated that conversion factor of large rattan from fresh rattan to polished are 35.6 - 41.2 % by weight and 68.5 - 83.0 % by volume.  Conversion factor of small rattan that processed until splitting are 28.5 - 25.1 % skin and 7.3 - 9.8 % by core weight.

Keywords : rattan, processing, conversion factor

Ringkasan

Faktor konversi rotan merupakan nilai yang menyatakan besarnya perubahan yang terjadi pada bahan rotan dalam proses pengolahan rotan. Perubahan tersebut terutama terjadi pada sifat-sifat fisis, yaitu kadar air dan berat jenis, sehingga terjadi perubahan volume dan berat. Faktor konversi perlu dihitung secara akurat karena akan berpengaruh kepada besarnya biaya produksi dalam pengolahan dan iuran/pajak hasil hutan yang harus dibayar produsen rotan.

Penentuan faktor konversi ini dilakukan terhadap empat jenis rotan yang terdiri dari dua jenis rotan besar, yaitu rotan Seuti (Calamus ornatus Bl.) dan Bubuay (Plectocomia elongata Bl), serta, dua jenis rotan kecil yaitu rotan Seel (Daemonorops melanochaetes Becc.) dan Pelah (Daemonorops rubra B].). Faktor konversi dihitung berdasarkan perubahan berat dan volume.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor konversi rotan besar berdasarkan berat dari tahap rotan segar sampai rotan setengah jadi (polis halus) adalah 35,6 - 41,2% dan berdasarkan volume adalah 68,5 - 83,0%. Untuk kedua jenis rotan kecil, faktor konversi sampai pembelahan adalah kulit 28,5 - 25,8% dan hati 7,3 - 9,8%  atas dasar berat.

Kata kunci : rotan, pengolahan, faktor konversi

66.    K. Ginoga, O. Cacho, Erwidodo M. Lugina, and D. Djaenudin

ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF COMMON AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS IN SOUTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA :  IMPLICATIONS FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION SERVICES

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2001

Abstract

University of New England, Armidale, This paper presents an analysis of the performance of four agroforestry systems in the southern part of Sumatra (Jambi and Lampung). The systems analyzed are rubber agroforests, cinnamon multicropping, oil palm monoculture and damar agroforests. These systems span the range from monoculture to complex agroforest and hence provide a useful overview of potential benefits and costs. Using a combination of modelling and data from various sources the paper shows that all four agroforestry systems are financially and economically attractive at a discount rate of 16 percent. The relative performance of each system in terms of social and environmental benefits is discussed at a general level, as well as their potential as tools for carbon sequestration. Implications of results are discussed in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, particularly regarding the problems of additionality, permanence and baselines.

Keywords : agroforestry, clean development mechanism, carbon sequestration, Sumatra, Indonesia, economic analysis

67.    Karyono dan Hariyatno, 2001

PELUANG DAN TANTANGAN PEMASARAN KAYU MINDI (Melia azedaracit L.) : Studi Kasus di Bogor Jawa Barat

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 2, Tahun 2001, pp 77-86

RINGKASAN

Peluang pemasaran kayu mindi (Melia azedarach L.) baik di dalam negeri maupun ke luar negeri seperti ke Jepang, Belanda dan Amerika Serikat semakin terbuka. Peluang tersebut didukung oleh semakin meningkatnya tingkat permintaan dari industri pengolahan kayu mindi di Indonesia terutama di kawasan Jabotabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang dan Bekasi), dan beberapa daerah di Jepara Propinsi Jawa Tengah.  Selain industri rumah tangga masyarakat konsumen (RTK) juga telah memanfaatkan kayu mindi sebagai bahan bangunan dan bahan baku mebeler.  Kayu mindi memiliki warna cerah seperti kayu karet atau Jati.  Serat kayunya halus, mudah untuk pengolahan.  Mindi cocok sebagai bahan baku produksi hasil kayu katagori small product (Meja Strika, Rak TV, Rak handuk). Mudah ditanam tidak memerlukan pemeliharaan yang intensif, tahan terhadap serangan hama gerek dan hama pucuk yang biasa terjadi pada kayu Sengon.  Umur 5-10 tahun bisa dipanen, sebelum ditebang berfungsi sebagai pelindung tanarman inti.  Harga di pasaran mampu bersaing dengan jenis kayu dari kebun rakyat misalnya dengan kayu Sengon dan Durian).

Tantangan bagi pelaku pasar kayu mindi yaitu ; ketersediaan kayu mindi secara kontinu mengingat budidaya kayu mindi tidak dilakukan secara intensif oleh masyarakat.  Di lain pihak instansi terkait (Kehutanan, Perhutani, Inhutani dan HPH) belum melakukan penanaman secara intensif.

Kata kunci : Peluang, tantangan. pemasaran, minds.

68.    Karyono dan Subarudi'

STUDY PERBANDINGAN NILAI PRODUK JASA WISATA DAN KAYU PADA HUTAN PRODUKSI DI JAWA BARAT (A Comparative Study on  Forest, Recreation and wood values at Forest Production in West Java)

Jurnal Sosial ekonomi, Vol. 2 No. 1 (200 1) pp. 71 – 78

Abstract

A forest produces both goods and services, The goods are forest product, (wood) and non wood forest product. while services include clean air, water supply, and recreation.  The value of the goods is appreciated by its price in the market, whereas recreation value can be estimated by a willingness to pay because of no market for it.  The research found that the value of recreation forest managed by PT Perhulani Ill, West Java (Rp. 819,000/ha) is higher than the value of its wood (Rp. 85, 000/ha) in 1997.  Other advantages of recreation forest are environmental friendly (non destructive to environment) and positive impact on social economic for local people.

Keywords : comparative study, forest product value and recreation forest value, and production forest

69.    Karyono, Rachman Efendi dan Sabarudi, 2001

DESENTRALISASI RETRIBUSI HUTAN WISATA SALAH SATU PENDAPATAN DALAM PELAKSANAAN OTONOMI DAERAH

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 2, Tahun 2001, pp 97-101

Ringkasan

Desentralisasi fiskal adalah untuk merestrukturisasi hubungan antara pusat dan daerah, dari pola lama yang sentralistik ke pola baru yang desentralistik.  Pajak Daerah dan Retribusi Daerah merupakan sumber pendapatan asli daerah (PAD).  Pengusahaan hutan wisata merupakan salah satu wajib pajak (PBB) dan wajib retribusi. Jumlah retribusi yang dipungut oleh Pemerintah Daerah Bogor misalnya, sebesar Rp. 29.068.800,- sedangkan PBB dari seluruh kawasan hutan produksi termasuk wana wisata Rp. 1,4 milyar (September 2001).  Retribusi sebagai sumber pendapatan asli daerah (RAD) selanjutnya digunakan untuk membiayai pelaksanaan pemerintahan, pembangunan dan pelayanan masyarakat.

Kata kunci: Desentralisasi, retribusi, hutan wisata, PAD

70.    Kirsfianti Ginoga dan Erwidodo

DAMPAK KRISIS EKONOMI TERHADAP KONDISI HUTAN DAN MASYARAKAT SEKITAR HUTAN: Kasus di Hutan Produksi Sumatera Selatan (The Impacts of Economic Crisis on Forest and Villagers at the Forest Frontier: A Case in South Sumatera Production Forest)

Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi, Vol : 2 No.1 (2001) pp. 15 - 30

Abstract

Economic crisis had serious impacts on the forestry sector in the province of south Sumatera, despite its share to the provincial Gross Domestic Product remained the same. During the crisis, from positive 50 per cent to negative 13.5 per cent and 41.5 per cent of the forestry workforce lost their job.

For farmers in the forest frontier, it is found that income from the most profitable planting pattern i.e. karet . karet and padi has  reduced 27 per cent economically and 9.5 per centrinancially during the crisis. If the subsistence necessary level of sayogyo is used, it shows that this amountis  far from meeting the level.  Therefore it is not surprising to see that many villagers had an additional income from many sources including "illegal " logging (membalok) and estate labour.  The source of illegal cutting is from the production forest with merawan, merbau, and pulai as the main wood collected.  The plantation forests belonged to the forest concessions were not disturbed because of their clear status and owner, despite their harvestable age.

These results have a number of policy implications : (i) the economic crisis and reform are expected to become a "blessing in disguise" for government to improve current policies regarding forest management, community, and other involved institution  (ii) the perceived status of forest estate needs to be addressed in both legal and social contexts to prevent further over-exploitation and (iii) there is a needs for community education regarding rubber plantation, forest fire protection and law.

Keywords : economic crisis, forest management, villagers at the forest frontier, illegal logging

71.    Komar Sumarna

DESKRIPSI EMPAT JENIS POHON UNTUK PENGEMBANGAN HUTAN RAKYAT (Description of Four Tree Species for Private Woodland Development)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol. 2, No. 1, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Keberhasilan pengembangan hutan rakyat terutama ditentukan oleh kesesuaian jenis pohon dengan kondisi lahan tempat pembudidayaannya. Untuk itu petani perlu memiliki pengetahuan yang memadai mengenai kesesuaian jenis pohon yang akan ditanam dengan kondisi lahan yang dimilikinya. Informasi ringkas mengenai empat jenis pohon serbaguna disajikan dalam makalah ini, yaitu: Akasia (Acacia auriculiformis), neem atau mimba (Azadirachta indica), cemara pantai (Casuarina equisetifolia), dan kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus). Keempat jenis pohon tersebut memiliki kemampuan beradaptasi di berbagai kondisi tapak, cepat tumbuh, dan menghasilkan berbagai produk, seperti kayu bakar berkualitas tinggi kayu pertukangan berdiameter kecil dan pakan ternak. Selain itu, beberapa jenis di antaranya dapat memperbaiki kondisi tanah, melalui kemampuannya mengikat nitrogen serta produksi mulsa; ampas biji neem (setelah diekstraksi minyaknya) merupakan pupuk yang mengandung hara tanaman beberapa kali lipat lebih banyak daripada pupuk kandang. Kemampuannya tumbuh baik di tanah yang miskin hara, memungkinkan pembudidayaannya tidak mengurangi lahan untuk tanaman pangan.

Kata kunci : hutan rakyat, Acacia auriculiformis, Azadirachta indica, Casuarina equisetifolia, Calliandra calothyrsus

Summary

A well matching of planted tree species on their planting sites ascertains the success of private woodland development.  Farmers have to possess adequate knowledge regarding the suitability of selected tree species to the real condition of their own farmland.  Some information about four selected multipurpose tree species, namely akasia (Acacia auriculiformis), neem or mimba (Azadirachta indica), cemara pantai (Casuarina equisetifolia) and kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) are presented in this paper.  These species have good adaptability to a wide range of site condition, fast growing, and produce various products among others high quality fuel wood, small diameter timber, and fodder.  Besides, some of them can improve soil condition by the ability to fix nitrogen and produce mulch; neem cake (residue left after extracting oilfrom the seeds) is an excellent fertilizer, because it is far richer in plant nutrients than manure.  Their ability to grow well on poor soils may allow their cultivation without competing in using land for food crops.

Keywords : private woodland, Acacia auriculiformis, Azadirachta indica, Casuarina equisetifolia, Calliandra calothyrsus

72.    Kresno Agus Hendarto

PENDEKATAN PENILAIAN EKONOMI SUMBER DAYA KAWASAN KONSERVASI (Approximation on Economic Valuation in the Resources of Conservation Area)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol.2, No. 2, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Tata guna lahan di kawasan konservasi merupakan permasalahan ekonomi, dimana semua keputusan tentang penggunaan lahan akan berakibat pada biaya dan manfaat ekonomi. Di Indonesia dan negara-negara berkembang lainnya ada kesalahpahaman tentang konsep kawasan konservasi.  Mereka beranggapan bahwa kawasan konservasi adalah sebuah "sumberdaya yang hilang". Tulisan ini mencoba untuk memberi gambaran tentang nilai ekonomi kawasan konservasi.  Pertama, digambarkan apa yang dimaksud dengan nilai ekonomi kawasan konservasi dan beberapa penelitian sebelumnya yang dilakukan di Indonesia, kemudian menggambarkan unsur-unsur dari nilai ekonomi. Terakhir, tulisan ini mengulas bagaimana menghitung nilai total ekonomi dari suatu kawasan konservasi. Secara keseluruhan tulisan ini menunjukkan bahwa penghitungan nilai total ekonomi kawasan konservasi memerlukan dukungan penelitian-penelitian komprehensif yang menyangkut aspek-aspek manajemen kawasan, yaitu perlindungan, pelestarian, dan pemanfaatan.  Tanpa adanya penelitian-penelitian tersebut, maka pelaksanaan penghitungan nilai total ekonomi tidak akan memberikan petunjuk atau indikasi seberapa besar sebenarnya total nilai ekonomi dari kawasan konservasi.

Kata kunci : kawasan konservasi, unsur- unsur dalam penilaian ekonomi, nilai total ekonomi

Summary

The functional land classification in conservation area is an economic problem that all decisions about, utilizing will have consequences on costs and benefits. In Indonesia and others development countries, there is a misperception about conservation area concept. They argue that conservation area is a "lost resource ". This paper tries to describe about economic valuation in conservation area. First, we begin with a discussion of economic valuation in conservation area and the prior study in Indonesia. Then, we describe components in economic valuation.  Finally, we show how to approximate total economic valuation. Overall, this paper shows that total economic valuation in conservation area needs support from the other comprehensive researches. They involved with management aspect area, such as protection, conservation, and exploitation.  Without them, total economic valuation could not give guideline and indication on how much as a matter of fact economic value conservation area is.

Key words : conservation area, components in economic valuation, total economic valuation

73.    Kresno Agus Hendarto

KEMUNGKINAN IMPLEMENTASI PEMBATALAN HUTANG UNTUK KONSERVASI DI INDONESIA (Possibility of debt for nature Swap Implementation in Indonesia)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol. 2, No. 2, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Kerusakan hutan di Indonesia sering dipercepat oleh proyek-proyek yang dilaksanakan secara tidak hati-hati. Dan biasanya proyek-proyek ini dibiayai oleh hutang luar negeri.  Walaupun tujuan utama dari pinjaman itu adalah untuk pembangunan ekonomi, namun tidak sedikit yang berakibat pada eksploitasi sumber daya alam.  Pembatalan hutang untuk konservasi atau Debt for Nature Swap (DNS) didefinisikan sebagai pembatalan utang luar negeri dimana negara debitur memberikan komitmen untuk memobilisasi sumber keuangan domestik untuk kegiatan konservasi. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk memberikan gambaran tentang DNS, dan kemungkinan penerapannya di Indonesia. Dimulai dengan gambaran singkat tentang sektor kehutanan di Indonesia, (kerusakan dan sumbangan hutan bagi negara), kemudian utang luar negeri Indonesia, dan terakhir konsep mengenai DNS. Konsep ini berisi beberapa contoh pengaplikasian DNS di negara lain, dan langkah-langkah apa yang perlu diambil agar DNS dapat diterapkan di Indonesia.

Kata kunci  :  hutang, hutan, pembatalan hutang untuk konservasi

Summary

Deforestation in Indonesia is often accelerated by projects that they are not did with prudently.  They are often funded by debt. Although debt aims to develop economic, it can get exploitation in, resource base. Cancellation debt for conservation or Debt for Nature Swap (DNS) is define as the cancellation of external debt in exchange for the debtor government's commitment to mobilize domestic resources (local currency or another asset) for an agreed purpose. This paper tries to describe about DNS, and whether DNS can apply in Indonesia. First, I describe about forest sector in Indonesia (deforestation and contribution to Indonesia), and then about external debt in Indonesia.  And finally, I describe what the DNS concept is. It contains some applications in the other countries, and how DNS can apply in Indonesia.

Keywords : debt, forest, debt for nature swap

74.    Kurniawati Purwaka Putri dan Dida Syamsuwida

PERTUMBUHAN AWAL BIBIT KIHIANG (Albizia procera) DI KBD JANGGLENGAN, SUKOHARJO (Assessing the Initial Growth of Kihiang (Albiziaprocera) Seedlings Cultivated at the Janglengan Village, Sukoharjo)

Buletin Tek. Perbenihan (Seed Tech.  Bull.) Vol. 8, No. 1, 2001  hal 48-55

Abstract

This study was aim at assessing the effect of different media, fertilizers, and rhizobium inaculum on the growth characteristics of kihiang seedlings. In this regard. the cultivating trial of the seedlings was conducted in the janglengan Village, Sukoharjo (East Java). The media used for such cultivation consisted of two types, i.e. mixture of sand and soil in equal (1 : 1) proportion by weight. The fertilizers were comprised of the inorganic (N-P-K) and organic (animal manure) matters. Meanwhile, the inoculum used was of the rhizobium.  In addition the seedling cultivation was also conducted without the used of fertilizers as well as inoculum on the corresponding media. Five weeks afterwards, growth characteristics were observed on the cultivated seedlings, covering their survival and height growth. A completely randomized design, with factorial pattern, was employed in this trial to help an analyze such characteristics, The factors were media-fertilizers-inoculum (including the one with neither fertilizers nor inoculum) was replicated three times.

The results showed that the implementation of soil-sand media in combination with organic fertilizer turned out to be the best for the growth of kihiang seedlings. Conversely, the use of rhizobium inoculum brought out no significant effect as otherwise expected.

Keywords : Albizia procera seedlings,cultivating media fertilizers,rhizobium

75.     Kurniawati Purwaka Putri dan Vulianti Bramasto

BUDIDAYA ANGSANA (PYerocarpus indicus) SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF TANAMAN HUTAN KOTA

Tekno Benih Vol. VI No.1 hal 52-55 Th 2001

Ringkasan

Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus) dikenal juga dengan narna kayu merah, merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman hutan yang banyak diminati untuk ditanam sebagai pohon peneduh, pelindung dan penghias taman kota atau hutan kota juga dapat berfungsi sebagai penahan abrasi di pantai.  Budidaya angsana tidaklah sulit baik dalam penanganan benih, perkecarnbahan maupun pengernbang biakan vegetatifnya.  Agar kualitas lingkungan hidup lebih baik, maka informasi mengenai budidaya angsana ini diharapkan dapat tersosialisasikan secara luas di masyarakat.

Kata kunci : Angsana, budidaya, penanganan benih, hutan kota

76.    La Ode Asir Tira

KAJIAN DAMPAK BEKAS JALAN SARAD TERHADAP LAJU EROSI DI HPH RANTE MARIO SULAWESI SELATAN (The study the impact of the former use skidding road on erosion at Rante Mario forest concession in Sulawesi Selatan)

Buletin Teknologi Pengelolaan DAS UP  NO. 7 hal 29-40, 2001

Summary

This paper presents the results of study of the former use skidding road impact on the erosion of a Forest Concessions in South Sulawesi.  This study done at Forest Concessions Rante Mario Company in 2000, by aims : 1).  To know the influence of the former use skidding road on actual erosion. 2).  To know the influence of the former use skidding road on run off and soil structures. 3).  To find an effort to decrease the former use skidding road impact on watershed environment.

These data were collected from four plots made on skidding road left one year, two years, three years and four years after, with the average a slopes between 30-45%.

The resufts of study showed that the actual erosion on the skidding in the skidding road in 1st plot was 4 tons/ha/month 2nd,was 0,88 tons/ha/month, 3th was 0,48 tons/ha/month and 4th was 2,05 tons/ha/month.

This differences were caused by the existence of natural vegetation and soil cover crop on the road, the other due to the skidding road pressed by heavy machine in long period which influencing soil structure.  So in the rainy season causing acceleration of run off and soil erosion rate.

Keywords : skidding road, vegetation, erosion rate, run off

77.    Indah Novita Dewi, Sulistya Ekawati

STUDI PEMANFAATAN HASIL HUTAN CADANGAN PANGAN DI KABUPATEN LUWU, SULAWESI SELATAN (The Using of Food Reserves Product Result in Luwu Regency, Sulawesi Selatan)

Buletin Teknologi Pengelolaan DAS hal 1-14 th 2001

Summary

The developing of food reserves forest is an effort to increase food reserve in the forest Besides food reserves forest which is introducted by the government, village people in South Sulawesi had been doing some food reserves forest principles, traditionally and self supporting, in their forest or field, with varies kind of plants.

The purposes of the research was: to know about the using of food reserves forest product There were two objects in this research.  The first, HCP I is a social forestry land with agroforestry system by plants compositions of Gmelina, Rambutan, mays, bean etc., which is introduced by the government.  The second is HCP II, which is a traditional food reserves forest that is composed by monoculture sago plants.

The research results were as follows : The average production of maize is Rp. 393.333,- Vigna sinensis Rp. 300.000,- Cassava Rp. 286.875,- (HCP I) and Sago Rp. 1. 797.080, (HCP II).  The leaves of Sago plants could be used as a roof.  Almost every house in Luwu area wear this kind of roof.  Every family could product 388 roofs per year or about Rp. 1.555.200,The activity of HCP I contributed 28,3 % to farmer income while the HCP II contribution to farmer income is 49,6%.

Generally, the HCP I product are for sale (53,2%) and for family food reserve (46,8%). For Sago, almost all for sale (82,53%) and 17,36% for family food reserve.  Further handling is still needed to increase the quality and quantity of food reserve.

Keywords :  food reserves forest, social forestry, agrotoresty, production, contribution

78.    M. Zanzibar

POTENSI DAN TEKNIK BUDIDAYA KEPUH (Stercaliafoetida Linn.) UNTUK PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN RAKYAT (Potency and Cultivating Technique of Kepuh (Sterculia foctida Linii.) for Farm Forest Developing)

Tekno Benih Vol.VI No.1 hal 15-22 Th 2001

Summary

Kepuh (Sterculia foetida Linn.) is ones of Indonesia indogenous species which have good potential for cultivated especially as farm forest plants.  Kepuh is fast growing and multi purpose species.  As timber, kepuh has not able to withstand contact with the soil or exposition to the weather, but has been used for canoes, boats and containers, it might be useful for paper pulp and good substitute for ramin (Gonystylus bancanus).  Some parts of plant (fruits, seeds, bark, etc.) could serve as medicine materials. In order to increase of kepuh's productivity, required good seeds and seedlings and improve of cultivating techniques.

Keywords : Sterculia foetida Linn., cultivating, indogenous species, farm forest
Kata kunci  : Sterculia foetida Linn, budidaya, jenis asli, hutan rakyat

79.    M. Zanzibar dan Emma Siskasari

ANALISIS KEMUNDURAN KUALITAS BENIH Gmelina arborea Linn. BERDASARKAN UJI DAYA HANTAR LISTRIK (Analysis on The Deterioration in Quality of Gmelina arborea Linn Seeds. Base on Their Leachate Conductivity)

Buletin  Tek.  Perbenihan (Seed Tech.  Bull.) Vol 8, No. 1, 2001 hal. 76-85

Summary

Deterioration of seeds is apparently eminent process and occur simultaneously until they finally turn to non viable seeds. As the seeds deteriorate, their substrate can be leached out in proportion to the degree of deterioration Measurement on how far the seed undergo deterioration is beneficial. since in this way their quality while aging can be determined.

The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of aging treatment on the quality (i e viability as wellas vigours) of Gmelina arborea seeds.  The treatment was the aging duration in nine successive (i.e. 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days).  As many on 25 seeds was allocated to each treatment (aging duration) which was replicated 4 times.

The viabilities/vigour observed were germination capacity, dry weight of normal seed germinate, growth rate and  unisom.

Further evaluation on viabilities/vigour of the seeds was alsoconducted by performing was so called leachate conductivity test. This conductivity (x) was also measured at each of the 9 successive duration levels, and further analyzed for its possible correlation with such viability/vigour parameters (Y1)  into several regression equations (Y1 = f(x)) with determination coeficient (R 2) as follow :

It turned out that all the correlation coeficients were significant (³ 80 %).

Consequently, the on line Y regressi equations can be used to predict the viabilities/vigour of Consequenty, the G. arborea seeds as well  as the extent of their deterioration by just measuring their leachate conductance.

Keywords  :  seed quality deterioration, seed aging, seed viability, seed vigor, lachate conductivity
Kata kunci  :  kemundum kualitas benih, pengusangan benih, viabilitas benih, vigor benih, daya hantar listrik

80.    M. Zanzibar, Dede J. Sudrajat  dan Hari Pribadi R

PENGARUH PERLAKUAN GAS C02, FUNCISIDA DAN BAKTERISIDA TERHADAP VIABILITAS DAN PERTUMBUHAN MIKROBA PADA PENYIMPANAN BENIH Paraserianthes falcataria (L) Nichen  (Tire Effect of Treatment with C02, Fungicide and Bactericide on The Viability and Microbe Growth Infecting Paraserianthes falcataria (L) Nielsen Seeds During Their Storage)

Buletin Tek.  Perbenihan  (Seed Tech. Bull.) Vol. 8, No. 1, 2001 hal 1-11

Summary

This trial investigate the effect of treatment i.e. using CO2, fungicides (benomil 50% nad metalaksil 35%) and bactericide (agrimycin; 15% streptomycine and 1,5% oxcytetracyline) on water content, germination capacity, germination rate and microbe infection of P. falcataria seeds during their storage (at 25 - 300 C, humidity of 80 - 9O%.). The resulting data were evaluated statistically by completely randomized design.

The result of this trial showed that the seeds with not treatment (control), with CO2, with fungicide and with bactericide were not significantly different from one and another with respect to germination characteristics.  However, significantly different different occurred to water content.

The dominant microbe in initial P. facataria seeds (before storage) were Panicillium sp., Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. After storage the dominant microbe were Aspergillus sp. and bacteria.  Treatment of fungicide (benomil 50% and metalaksil 35%) and bactericide (agrimycin; 15% streptomycine and 1,5% oxytetracyline) are effective to reduce the microbe infection on storage of P. falcataria seeds

Keywords :  P. falcataria seeds,germination seed storage
Kata kunci : benih P. falcataria perkecambahan, penyimpanan benih

81.    M. Zanzibar.  Buharinan dan Dede J. Sudrajat

PENGARUH DOSIS REGENT 50 SC DAN PERIODE PENYEMPROTANNYA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT Paraserianthes falcataria (I.) Nielsen DAN Acacia mangium Wilid.  (Assessing the Effect of the Varying Dosagses in the Regent 50 SC and its Periodic Spraying on the Growth of Paraserianthes faleataria (L) Nielsen and Acacia mangium Willd Seedlings)

Buletin Tek.  Perbenihan (Seed Tech.  Bull.) Vol, 8, No. 1, 2001 hal 56-70

Summary

This trial deals with assessing dosages in the Regent 50 SC and its periodic spraying on the growth characteristics of the 3-manths old Parasetnhes falcataria (L) Nielsen and Acacia mangium Willd seedlings.  The dosages were arranged in six levels. ie. consecutively 0-. 1-, 4.- 8-, 12-, and 16 ml of Regent 50 SC per liter of water.  Meanwhile, the spraying was conducted at the second and sixth week periods. The growth characteristics as observed comprised survival percentage, growth of height, total of dry weight, ratio of top to root portions of the seedlings.  A completely randomized design with factorial pattern was assigned to help analyze such observe d characteristics.  The factor in the regard were the dosages of the Regent  50 SC (in six levels) and its periodic spraying (in to intervals).  Each of the treatment combinations between the dosages and the spraying factors was replicated 4 times.

The results revealed that the spraying conducted at the second week period was more in controlling the insect pest.  Further, the implementation of spraying with the Regent 50 SC could increase the seedling survival, the growth of height, total dry weight and the weight ratio of top to root portions of both P. falcataria and A. mangium seedlings.  With respect to P. falcaataria the dosages of Regent 50 SC at 12- and 16-ml per liter of water could increase the height (by 2- and 19-percent, respectively) and dry weight of the biomass matters (by 42- and 46-percent, respectively); in all, compared to the ones without such chemical agent (zero dosage of Regent 50 SC).  Meanwhile, the corresponding dosages implemented to the A. mangium seedlings could increase their height (by 12 and 18-percent, respectively).  Further, the increase in the dry weight of their biomass was achieved at 16 ml dosage Regent 50 SC.  In practice, the early spraying using such 12- and 16-ml dosage brought out better growth characteristics of both seedlings

Kata kunci  :  P. faicataria, A. mangium, bibit, dosis, Regent 50 SC, penyemprotan
Keywords :  P. faicataria, A. mangium, seedlings, dosage, Regent 50 SC, spraying

82.    Machfudh and J. D. Kasile  

APPLICATION OF BASIC ALGEBRA OPERATIONS ON  THEMATIC MAPPER BANDS FOR DISCRIMINATING LAND COVERS

Forestry Research Journal Vol. 2, No. 2, 2001

Abstract

The study emphasized on evaluating basic mathematical operations of Landsat TM digital data for selecting appropriate band(s) which would provide high accuracy to discriminate  land covers. Finding of this study might be useful to monitor changes of a complex forest covers such as forests in Indonesia.  Six bands of the Landsat TM data of the Barnebey Center in Southeast Ohio and its vicinity were evaluated by using the IBM-PCIPS software on an IBM PC.  Based on values of Overlapping Land cover Index (OLI) and in-bound range of Brightness Value of each band operation, band 1+4 was the best band operation for discriminating land covers.  Quality of operations to enhance land cover appearance on the monitor were specific for certain land covers.

Keywords  :  Remote Sensing, Landsat TM, land covers, digital analysis

83.    Maman Turjaman dan Erdy Santoso

EFEKTIVITAS TABLET, KAPSUL DAN SUSPENSI SPORA Pisolithus arhizus CENDAWAN EKTOMIKORIZA PADA SEMAI Eucalyptus pellita (Effectivity of tablet, capsul, and suspension of spores of Pisolithus arhizus ectomycorrhizae on Eucalyptus pellita seedlings)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 629, Tahun 2001

Summary

Research has shown that ectomycorrhiza could increase growth and yield of trees. Ectomycorrhizal fungi play an important role in both nutrient mobilization and nutrient cycling therefore their presence are essential in pines, eucalypts and dipterocarps regenerations.

The aim of the experiment was to obtain the most effective Pisolithus arhizus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Eucalyptus pellita and different types of inoculant in nursery. Randomized Completely Design was used with 5 level of types of spore carriers as treatment, that is control (non-inoculated), tablet, capsul and suspension of spores, each level was replicated 5 times.

The result revealed that inoculation of ectomycorrhiza fungi on E. pellita seedlings could increase growth compared to those of controls as indicated by plant heights, stem diameters, dry weights and percentage of infection.  The most suitable type of inoculant for E. Pellita seedling was spore tablet.

84.    Mamat H. S and  T. Subarna

RATIO ANALYSIS OF LAND UTILIZATION ON EUCALYPTUS AND UPLAND RICE INTERCROPPING PATTERN

Forest Research Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2001

Abstract

The ratio analysis of land utilization on Eucalyptus globulus (Degulpta), as the main crop, and upland rice intercropping pattern was conducted at Jatimunggul forest land, Indramayu District, West Java. The objective of the study was to find out the correlation between the main crop and the secondary crop productions to support the social forestry program. The study was conducted in two  periods of upland rice season  in 1998 and 1999. Data were collected from 4 intercropping, 4 monoculture upland rice, and 4 monoculture Eucalyptus plots, with the area of 0.25 ha per plot. The data covered Eucalyptus and upland rice productions. They were analyzed with the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER). The analysis resulted LER value of 1.68, meaning that the intercropping of upland rice and Eucalyptus can increase the cumulative production compared to monoculture rice or monoculture Eucalyptus production. The model of Eucalyptus and upland rice intercropping can be developed further.

Keywords : Eucalyptus globulus, upland rice, inter cropping, model

85.    Mariana Takandjandji, Edy Sutrisno dan/and lda Rachmawati, 2001

PERTUMBUHAN RUMPUT RAJA (Pennisetum Purpuphoides) DI BAWAH ‘TEGAKAN EucalyptusAlba PADA SISTEM WANATANI DENGAN POLA SILVOPASTURE DI NTT (THE GROWTH OF KING GRASS (Pennisetum Purpuphoides) UNDER Eucalyptus Alba STAND IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM By SYLVOPASTURE PATTERN IN NTT)

Buletin Penelitian BPK Kupang, Vol. 5 No. 1 Tahun 2001, pp 21

Summary

Research on sylvopasture pattern by enrichment of king grass (Pennisetum Purpuphoides) under Eucalyptus alba stand has been conducted in SoE (Bu’at), district of Timor Tengah Selatan, province of NTT. The research was conducted in NTT mainly due to this province has been well known as semiarid zone with long dry season (about 8 month).  There was limited green fodder during dry season, hence, livestock farmer tends to use forest tree yield as fodder in particularly leaves and bark.

The aim of the research is to determine the possibility use of combined King grass and Eucalyptus designed on Sylvopasture patttern in agro forestry system, to determine the adaptability and productivity of King greass grown under Eucalyptus alba hopefully, practicing sylvopasture pattern can increase yield of fodder, hence, green fodder will be available during dry season. In addition by practicing sylvopasture pattern, sustainable environment can be maintained and by standard living of farmer can be improved.

Observations were made on plot established under Eucalyptus alba with two treatments, enrichment of King grass plot and no King grator pint (control). Each treatment was replicated three times and individual plot size was 50 x 50 M. Eucalyptus Alba stand was albavtand was categorized on big group, medium group, and seedlings based on diameter.  A cutting of King grass with 20 cm length was grown on 1 m by 1 m spacing. Height and diameter of King grass were measured seven times per year. And production (weight of King grate) way measured two times per year. Also, measurement of wild grass was determined three times per year.

Result of the research showed that growth and development of weight King grass was low (416.50 kg/plot), mainly due to maintenance of research plot way less intensive.  Growth of wild grass was also not affected by canopy of Euclyptus alba. Weight of wild grass was 382.90 kg/plot In conclusion svlvopasture pattern is promising pattern to be developed on agroforegtry system in NTT.

86.    Mumiati, Sumarhani dan A.Ng. Gintings

DEMPLOT WANATANI SEBAGAI MODEL USAHA REHABILITASI LAHAN ALANG-ALANG (Agroforestry demonstration plot as a model of Imperata grassland rehabilitation effort)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 627, Tahun 2001

Summary

Agroforestry Demonstration Plot at Mangkaok Village, South Kalimantan Province was developed in the end of 1993 by Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development Centre (FNCRDC) in cooperation with Food Agriculture OrganizationlAsia Pacific Agroforestry Network (FAOIAPAN) and Riam Kanan Soil Conservation and Land Rehabilitation Sub Institution (now is called as Forestry and Soil Conservation Service a Banjar).

The objectives of the demonstration plot are to rehabilitate the imperata grassland and to increase the land productivity. In addition, it can be used by surrounding society as extension media in establishing the farm on the sloping dry land area.

The Demonstration Plot used "alley cropping" planting pattern which combined perennial tree crops with annual food crops and integrated with several soil and water conservation methods, i.e. land preparation and planting through contour line, making bench terraces and using terraces strengthener/erosion buffer plants.  Various species were planted in the demplot consist of forest trees (Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria), fruit trees/multipurpose trees (durian/Durio zibethinus, mango/Mangivera indica, petai/Parkia speciosa, rambutan/Nephelium lappaceum and coconut/Cocos nucifera), terrace strengthener/erosion buffer plants (Glirisidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Calliandra calothirsus), annual food crops (rice/oriza sativa, corn/Zea mays, groundnut/arachis hypogaea and cassava/manihot esculenta), and shade tolerant plants (coffee/coffea sp., ginger/Zingiber ofisinale and "kencur "/Kaempferia galanga).

Growth of all species in the plot are sufficient.  The average height and diameter of forest trees are 8.10 m and 12.38 cm for A. mangium at four years old, 13.80 m and 17.27 cm for P. falcataria at 40 months old.  In general vegetative growth of fruit trees were good.  However, they have not produce fruits yet, except rambutan trees. The yield of biomass from pruning the terrace strengthener plants were rather low, whereas the yield of annual food crops were high.

Imperata grassland can be rehabilitated through implementation the agroforestry system/technologies. This land use management enable to maintain soil fertility and increase land productivity, therefore the sustainable land use can be achieved.

87.    Naning Yuniarti

MENGENAL PERBENIHAN DAN BUDIDAYA TANAMAN MERBAU (Intsia bijuga 0. Ktze)

Tekno Benih Vol.VI No.1 hal 1-6 Th 2001

Ringkasan

Merbau (Intsia bijuga 0. Ktze) merupakan salah satu jenis pohon yang potensial untuk dikembangkan menjadi prioritas dalam pembangunan Hutan Tanaman Industri (HTI).  Manfaat yang bisa diperoleh dari kayu merbau adalah umumnya dipakai untuk balok, tiang dan papan pada bangunan perumahan dan jembatan, untuk bantalan dan kayu perkapalan, lantai, panil, mebel, karoseri dan barang bubutan.

Pohon merbau berbuah pada bulan Mei sampai dengan Agustus.  Benih yang masak fisiologis dicirikan dengan wama benih coklat tua kemerahan.  Potensi produksi buah per pohon berkisar antara 73 81 buah/pohon dan produksi benih per pohonnya adalah antara 363 - 407 benih/pohon.  Sedangkan jumlah benih dalam 1 Kg adalah 354 benih.

Perlakuan pendahuluan untuk mempercepat proses perkecambahan benih merbau adalah pengikiran dan kemudian direndam dalam air dingin selama 30 menit.  Media perkecambaban yang terbaik adalah media campuran tanah dan pasir dengan perbandingan 1 : 1.

Cara pembuatan bibit merbau dapat dilakukan dengan 2 cara, yaitu biji langsung ditanam di lapangan dan melalui persemaian.  Untuk penanaman langsung dari biji di lapangan sebaiknya dilakukan dengan meletakkan biji secara horizontal pada kedalaman 5 cm. Sedangkan penanaman dengan bibit hasil penyapihan dilakukan dengan posisi tegak, demikian pula untuk benih yang berupa stump, selanjutnya ditimbun dengan tanah dan ditekan secara hati-hati.

Kata kunci  :  Merbau (Intsia bijuga O.Ktze), perbenihan, budidaya tanaman
Keywords  :  Merbau (Intsia bijuga 0. Ktze), seed, silviculture

88.    Naning Yuniarti, Dede J. Sudrajat, Dida Syarnsuwida dan M. Zanzibar

CARA EKSTRAKSI, PERLAKUAN PENDAHULUAN DAN METODE PENGUJIAN VIABILITAS DI LABORATORIUM DAN RUMAH KACA PADA BENIH TISUK (Hibiscus macrophylla) (Possibility of requiring proper methods of extraction, pretreatment, and viability as well as germination test in laboratorium and green house on Tisuk (Hibiscus macrophylia) Seeds)

Buletin Tek.  Perbenihan (Seed Tech.  Blull.) VII. 8, No. 1, 2001  hal 119-130

Summary

The main aim of this research was to explore the possible requiring of appropriate methods of extraction, pretreatment, germination test in a laboratory as well as a green house for tisuk seeds such that it would increase and accelerate the germination capacity. The extraction included the on for the cleaning of seeds with or without their hair.  Further pretreatment covered the ones implementing cool water, hot water, hydrogen peroxide (H202,), and sulfuric acid  (H2SO4) solution. The laboratory ,germination included the ones performed on the upper porlian of paper, between paper sheets, and rolled paper set in upright/standing position.  Meanwhile the germination performed in the green house used the media of vermiculate, coconut dust, soil, sand, and the mixture of soil and sand in 1 : 1 proportion (by weight). The completely randomized design was used to analyze the over all data resulting from such implemented methods.

Results indicate that the best extraction was the one on the seeds without the cleaning of their hairs.  Further pretreatment wing H2SO4, turned out the most proper solvent to increase and accelerated on the upper paper porlian brought out the highest germination capacity.  After all, the best medium in the green house germination was provided by vermiculate.

Kata kunci : benih tisuk (Hibiscus macrophylia), metode perkeearnbahan, viabilitas
Keywords : Tisuk (Hibiscus macrophylla) seeds, germination method, viability

89.    Naning Yuniarti, Dida Syansuwida, M. Zanzibar

TEKNIK PENYIMPANAN BENIH Acacia crassicarpa (Techniques Of Proper Storage of Acacia crassicarpa seeds)

Buletin Tek.  Perbeniban (Seed Tech.  Bull.) Vol, 8, No. 1, 2001 hal 86-95

Summary

To ensure that Acacia crassicarpa seed remain viable after being separated from their host plant, and is able to germinate satisfactory only their planting later. proper techniques of their storage is necessary.

The aim of this research is to find out a proper technique of storage of acacia crasicarpa seeds In implementing proper storage techniques, three types of factors were tested, i.e. : storage container, (plastic and cloth bags), storage room (air conditioned, refrigerator and room/ambient temperature) and storage duration (0, 1, 2 and 3 months).

The results showed that the most proper storage of A. crassicarpa seeds was by using plastic bag container in air conditioned room.

Kata kunci : penyimpanan, benih Acacia crassicarpa
Keywords : storage, Acacia crassicarpa seed

90.     Nur Muhammad Heriyanto

KOMPOSISI DAN PENYEBARAN JENIS TUMBUHAN DI HUTAN BEKAS TEBANGAN DAN HUTAN PRIMER, MALUKU TENGAH (Composition and Distribution of Species in Logged-over and Virgin Forest, Central Maluku)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 629, Tahun 2001

Summary

This work was carried and at the area Brata Jaya Utama Co, Seram Island, Central Maluku. It aimed at studying tehe development of tropical rain forest standing stock of the island. Stratified technique sampling method was used. The total all sampling are consisted of 5 collective sampling area, covering an area 1,000 m length and 20 m width.  Samples were taken every year standing stock stands.  Samples for study were also taken at the primary forest.

The result of this work indicates that the standing stock development of the logged-over area of 1989/1990 was the highest for seedling (48 species), sapling (52 species), poles (57 species) and trees (55 species).  The important value indices for logged-over area 1979/1980 for seedling and sapling were Eugenia sp. and Octomeles sumatrana, for poles and trees were Eugenia sp. and Octomeles sumatrana respectively. The logged-over area 1984/1985 for seedling and sapling were Eugenia sp. and Pometia pinnata, for poles and trees were Shorea selanica and Agathis sp. respectively. The logged-over area 1989/1990 for seedling and sapling were Callophyllum inophyllum and Eugenia sp., for poles and trees were Shorea selanica and Myristica succendanea. The logged-over area 1994/1995 for seedling and sapling were Calophyllum inophyllum and Eugenia sp. for poles and trees were Shorea selanica and Myristica succendanea.  In the primary forest, the highest dominant index value for seedling sand sapling were Diospyros pillosanthera, for poles and trees Shorea selanica and Eugenia sp.

The distribution of class diameter of 20 - 29 cm for the number of stands/ha successively 5 trees/ha (1984/1985), 6 trees/ha (1989/1990), 9 trees/ha (1979/1980), 19 trees/ha (1994/1995) and 21 trees/ha for primary forest. For distribution of class diameter of 30-39 cm for the number successively of stands/ha successively 7 trees/ha (1979/1980 and 1984/1985), 1O trees/ha (1989/1990), 26 trees/ha (1994/1995), and 26 trees/ha for primary forest.

The distribution of class diameter of 40 - 49 cm for the number of stands/ha successively 7 trees/ha (1979/1980), 9 trees/ha (1989/1990), 10 trees/ha (1984/1985), 13 trees/ha (1994/1995) and 24 trees/ha for primary forest. For distribution of class diameter of >50 cm for the number of stands/ha successively 7 trees/ha (1979/1980), 18 trees/ha (1989/1990), 21 trees/ha (1984/1985), 32 trees/ha (1994/1995) and 41 trees/ha for primary forest.

Density of seedling, sapling, poles and trees increased with an increased of the logged over area ages.

Kata kunci : Kompoisisi-Penyebaran jenis-Hutan bekas tebangan-Hutan primer.

91.     Nur Muhammad Heriyanto dan Sutiyono

KERAGAMAN UKURAN BIJI Diospyros celebica Bakh DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN (The Variation in Seed Size of  Diospyros celebica Bakh and its Effect to the Germination)

Buletin Penelitian, P3H&KA, No. 626 Th. 2001

Summary

A study on the size of Diospyros celebica Bakh seed and its influence to the germination growth was conducted from 2nd  January 1999 to 2nd  June 1999  in the nursery of the Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development Center (FNCRDC), Jalan Gunung Batu,  Bogor.

The aim of this study was to find out on,  the parameter of seed quality interms of germination capability of D. celebica seeds.

The study was arranged with completely randomized design and followed by Tukey test.  The seeds were divided into three groups, i.e : big, moderate and small seed. Every seed was germinated in a plastic bag of 12,5 x 12,5 cm containing 1 kg of soil. Every treatment needs 20 seeds with 3 replications, therefore 180 experimental units (3 x 3 x 20) were prepared.

The result of the study shows that the weight and length of D. celebica seeds were very varied.  The weight of the seed ranged from 0,99 to 2,24 gram with an average of 1,50 gram, while the length of the seed varied from 2,50 to 3,75 cm, with average of3,15 cm.  It was estimated that 1 kg of D. celebica amounts to 688 seeds.

The variation of seed size did not influence the time of germination.  The dormancy period of D. celebica seeds was relatively longer indicated by the beginning of germination which occurred in the 36th – 37th day.  The germination ended in the 42th – 43th day, therefore the period of germination was relatively the same i.e 7--8 days.  The bigs seed tends to produce a big sprout.

A further study, the effects of seed size on seedling growth, is recommended to determine the requirement of seed selection.

92.    Nur Muhammad Heriyanto, Sofwan Bustoni, Yana Sumarna

EKOLOGI DAN POTENSI DAMAR MATA KUCING (Shorea javanica K&V) DI KELOMPOK HUTAN KRUI – KOTAJAWA KABUPATEN LAMPUNG BARAT (The ecology and standing stock of  Shorea javanica K & V (Damar mata kucing) in the Krui - Kotajawa Forest Complex District of West Lampung)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 628, Tahun 2001

Summary

(Shorea javanica) Damar mata kucing has been grown in a group of forest developed as reclamation after utilization by a concession holder PT. Bina Lestari.  The forest confine the are of about 17.000 ha.  According to the government administration the forest; are situated in the sub districts of North Pesisir, Central Pesisir and South Pesisir of the district of West Lampung.  While according to the forestry administration the forests are under the administration of Lampung Forest District.

Analysis of the forest stands indicates that the vegetation of the forest can be divided into three vegetation components namely non forest consisting of pasture lands, coffee plantations, pepper plantations and shrubs (4.333, 30 ha); thin forests (5.666,10 ha) and dense forests (7.000,60 ha).  The area used for this study is categorized as the lowland and highland wet tropical rain forests, with elevation ranges between 10 and 439 m above sea level.

The mean standing stock of all species with trunk diameter ³ 20 cm was 80,08 m3/ha, consisted of Dipterocarpaceae species 54,02 m3/ha (damar mata kucing 53,58 m3/ha), non Dipterocarpaceae stands (13,75 m3/ha), non wood stands (7,26 m3/ha) and other stand species (5,05 m3/ha). The standing stock with trunk diameter of ³ 50 cm was 42,36 m3/ha comprising Dipterocarpaceae species 32,42 m3/ha (damar mata kucing 32,42 m3/ha ), non Dipterocarpaceae species (6,64 m3/ha), non wood species (2,17 m3/ha) and other stand species (0,89 m3/ha).  The standing stock with trunk diameter of ³ 60 cm was 30,61 m3/ha, consisted of the Dipterocarpaceae species 24,84 m3/ha (damar mata kucing 24,65 m3/ha), non Dipterocarpaceae species (4,07 m3/ha ), non wood species (1,38 m3/ha) and other stand species (0,31 m3/ha).

Resin gum is usually taken from the stand with trunk diameter of ³ 20 cm. The resin gum produced by the stand at the low and dense forest with the trunk diameter of ³ 20 cm 35,82 kg/ha/month and 215,16 kg/ha/month, with trunk diameter of ³ 50 cm was 15,16 kg/ha/month and 123,39 kg/ha/month, and with trunk diameter of ³ 60 cm was 11,11 kg/ha/month and 92,72 kg/ha/month respectively.

High dominance and potential of Shorea javanica may indicate an endemic population of Dipterocarpaceae esecially Shorea javanica. It is suggested to develop the forest since it has potential high resin production.

93.     Nurhasybi

KAYU AFRIKA (Maesopsis endnii Engl.): BUDIDAYA DAN POTENSINYA UNTUK PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN TANAMAN

Tekno Benih Vol. VI No.1 hal 35-41 Th 2001

Summary

Maesopsis eminii is one example of exotic species that has a good potential for forest plantation in Indonesia.  This species was introduced at the tea garden in West Java for the first time in Indonesia, and then started to be planted in forest area as a complement for Paraserianthes falcataria that were heavily attacked by Xystrocera festiva.  The tremendous decrease of wood production from the natural forests will has to be anticipated by supporting the development of forest plantation by using the appropriate species for planting in a certain area. The use of wood of M. eminiifor the cover of plywood make this species planted in large more area in Indonesia and Malaysia.

Keywords  :  Maesopsis eminii, appropriate species, forestplantation, seed handling
Kata kunci  :  Maesopsis eminii, jenis yang sesuai, hutan tanaman, penanganan benih

94.     Nurhasybi dan Dede J. Sudrajat

PENGARUH TINGGI TUNGGAK TANAMAN Gmelina arborea TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TRUBUSANNYA PADA UMUR EMPAT BULAN (Assessing the Affect of Varying of Gmelina arborea Stumps on the Growth Characteristics of Tireir 4-month Old Coppice)

Buletin Tek. Perbenihan (Seed Tech. Bull.) Vol. 8, No. 1, 2001, hal. 96-109

Summary

Gmelina arborea belongs to the am of fast-growing species and hence can be potential for its possible establishment m industrial plantation forest and/or community forest. The ability of this species to grow its coppices abundantly might be advantage-for developing hedge orchards, which is related to its vegetative propagation.  This advantage can be considered for its regeneration purposes that might be simple and cheaper in field operation.  Related as such a preliminary study on 4-month old coppices as developed from G. arborea trees has been conducted in the Parungpanjang Seed Orchard, Bogor.

G. arborea trees used in this study were the ones with 4-year age and considered growing unwell as well as developing bad-shaped stem. Stem of the trees was cut at the height s of come cutively 0-cm, 10-cm, and 20-cm from the ground surface, Ieaving their stumps as such three respective heights. The 4-year age G. arborea trees were situated in two different plantation sites, either regarded as blocks (34-A and 35-A) and each covering an Aria] of 25 hectares with stand spacing at 3-m by 3-m.  The selection of the trees predicted to develop satisfactory coppices study were conducted randomly from their particular blocks.  In blocks 34-A and 35-B, there were comecutively 250 and 249 G. arborea stumps at their remaining heights lie. 0-, 10-, and 20-cm).  Four months afterwards, only one developed coppice from each stump at such three particular heights was observed with respect to their growth characteristics.  Such characteristics consisted of their survival, percentage of coppice with straight-shape stem, number of coppices, branches, and diameter and height of the coppices.  The randomized to analyze such resulting observations.

Results revealed that regardless of the stumps with different heights, it did not affect significantly the growth of such coppices. To infer, This trial brought about the coppices of G. arborea with uniform results, there by being advantageous for the establishment of plantation forests.

Keywords : Gmelina arborea coppice, preliminary study, uniformity
Kata kunci : Trubusan Gmelim arborea, studi awal, keseragaman

95.     O.K. Karyono dan Achmad Supriadi, 2001

NILAI EKONOMI PEMANFAATAN KAYU MINDI (Melia azedarach) STUDI KASUS DI BOGOR JAWA BARAT

Info Hasil Hutan, Vol. 8 No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 1-10

Ringkasan

Kayu Mindi (Melia azedarach L.) ditanam petani yang berfungsi sebagai pohon pelindung/ pelindung tanaman inti, dan penggunaannya sebagian besar untuk kayu bakar.  Dari kayu mindi yang telah dimanfaatkan sebagai kayu bundar, papan gergajian dan produk mebeler, ternyata dapat memberikan pendapatan kepada pelaku pasar mulai dari petani produsen sampai kepada pengusaha mebeler berkisar antara Rp 250.000.- s/d Rp 900.000.-/ m3 produk.

Rendemen penggergajian rata-rata kayu mindi sekitar 50 - 60%. setelah dimanfaatkan menjadi mebeler. rendemennya sekitar 35-40%.  Nilai tambah yang diperoleh dari pemanfaatan kayu mindi sebagai papan penggergajian dan produk mebeler masing-masing adalah Rp 250.000.-dan Rp 550.000,-.

Kata kunci : Mindi.  Pemanfaatan, Nilai ekonomi.

96.     P. Permadi,  J. Gril, S. Numazawa and P. Girard

DIMENSIONAL STABILISATION OF COMPRESSED WOOD BY THERMAL TREATMENT

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2001

Abstract

Thermal treatment can be applied to stabilize compressed wood.  In this study optimum condition of thermal treatment (temperature and residence time) in stabilizing compressed poplar wood has been identified through simple modelization. 

The results show that the optimum conditions are :  160oC for 3.3 hours, 187oC for 1.1 hours and 212oC for 20 minutes.  Compressed wood has lower energy activation than untreated wood which is 18 kcal/mol.

Keywords  :  poplar wood, compressed wood, thermal treatment, dimensional stabilization.

97.     P. Permadi, A. Themelin, P. Girard and S. Mouras

INFLUENCE OF TORREFACTION PROCESS ON WOOD DIMENSIONAL  STABILITY AND MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2001

Abstract

The influence of torrefaction on some physical and mechanical properties of eucalypts wood was studied.  In this study, three different final temperatures, 220oC, 230oC and 240oC for one-hour residence time were applied on 2.5 x 10 x 120 cm eucalypts board and 1 mm thick veneer.  The results show that these processes decrease hygroscopicity and improve the wood dimensional stability.  On the other hand, to some extend wood mechanical properties decrease.  The final temperature is an important factor affecting those properties.  The test on durability is still in progress and it seems this process can be developed to improve wood quality.

Keywords  :  eucaliptus, torrefaction, dimensional stability, mechanical properties.

98.     P. Sukartana and Y.I. Mandang

ACCELERATED FIELD AND LABORATORY TESTS OF NATURAL RESISTANCE  OF SOME INDONESIAN WOOD SPECIES TO SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE Coptotermes SP.

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2001

Abstract

Natural resistance of 22 Indonesian wood species to subterranean termite Coptotermes sp. was determined through accelerated field and laboratory studies. The test materials were cut into test blocks measuring of 10 x 2.5 x 1.0 cm. The samples were divided into two groups, one for field experiment and the other for laboratory. Each group was randomly prepared in a bundle tightened with plastic rope.  One bundle was exposed on wood stump being infested by the termite species in field and the other was on termite culture in laboratory. Observations were based on visual damage and weight loss after both test groups were exposed for six months.

Based on the visual rating, most wood samples could be classified into very resistant and resistant. Only some were considered moderately, not resistant and perishable. Meanwhile, according to the weight loss system, all samples were likely degraded. Visually intact but the weight declined after exposure. However, the well-known durable species, for examples, ulin or bulian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) and balau (Shorea laevis) were still sound. Albizia (Paraserianthes (Albizia) falcataria) and mangium (Acacia mangium) were grouped into resistant to moderately resistant classes. Tusam (Pinus merkusii) and rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), two wood species that were included in the test for references, had been completely devoured.

Keywords : Coptotermes sp., accelerated field and laboratory tests, visual rating, and weight loss.

99.     P. Sukartana, R. Rushelia, Djarwanto and G. Sumarni

ESTIMATING EFFECTIVENESS OF CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID (CNSL) (Anacardium occidentale) TO CONTROL OF SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE Coptotermes gestroi WASMANN (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2001

Abstract

Effectiveness of crude extract of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) (Anacardium occidentale) was tested against subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann. The experiments were designated to determine effect of the extract on feeding and contact activities of the termite species. Several CNSL solutions in acetone solvent were prepared. Small filter paper pads, 3 cm in diameter, were used for feeding test and sieved sand particles were for contact test. The papers and sand particles were each soaked in CNSL solution for one minute. After the solvent evaporated, the paper and a layer of sand particles were each put in a small plastic vial and then wetted with two drops of water. Twenty five termite workers and three soldiers were introduced in each vial to allow them feed on the treated paper or forage on the treated sand. The whole test assembly was kept in moist and dark at room temperature for 14 days. Results revealed that CNSL solution of 2.5% or more was effective for feeding test, causing 100% termite mortality at day 2 – 4 after exposure. Effectiveness of solution of 1.0% solution was very low, only caused termite mortality of about 60% after 14 day exposure. Effectiveness the solution in contact test was lower than that in feedings. Treatment with 10.0% solution produced 100% termite mortality at day one, but it took longer time for the lower concentrations, at day 7 and 14 for 7.0 and 5.0% solutions respectively. Treated sand with CNSL solution of 2.5% or lower was ineffective, or even tends to be similar to the control performance.

Keywords : feeding and contact tests, mortality, effectiveness, deterioration grade

100.   Poedji Hastoeti, Bambang Wiyono dan Hartoyo, 2001

PENGARUH JENIS DAN KONSENTRASI ASAM TERHADAP KUALITAS DEKSTRIN SAGU

Info Hasil Hutan, Vol. 8 No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 11-19

Ringkasan

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis dan konsentrasi asam terhadap dekstrin sagu yang dihasilkan, sedangkan sasarannya adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi pengolahan dekstrin yang menghasilkan dekstrin dengan daya larut yang terbaik.  Pembuatan dekstrin dengan berbagai jenis asam dan konsentrasi ini dilakukan secara kering. Larutan asam yang digunakan adalah asam klorida dan asam sulfat, di mana masing-masing jenis asam konsentrasinya terdiri dari 0%. 1,250%, 1.50%. 1,75% dan 2%.  Pengaruh jenis asam dan konsentrasinya terhadap kualitas dekstrin dianalisis dengan rnenggunakan rancangan faktorial, dan nilai rataan setiap kualitas dianalisis dengan Tukey prosedur dalam paket SAS.

Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa katalis asam klorida menghasilkan dekstrin dengan sifat kelarutan dalam air yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan dekstrin yang dihasilkan katalis asam sulfat.  Sedangkan faktor konsentrasi sangat nyata mempengaruhi bilangan asam dan derajat asam dekstrin yang dihasilkan.  Bilangan asam dekstrin meningkat dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi katalis asam yang digunakan.  Kosentrasi asam yang menghasilkan nilai derajat asam yang berbeda nyata terhadap konsentrasi lainnya hanya 1,25% saja, sedangkan di antara konsentrasi asam 1.50%, 1,75% dan 2% tidak.  Untuk nilai bilangan asamnya, baik di antara jenis maupun konsentrasi asam yang digunakan menghasilkan nilai bilangan asam yang berbeda nyata satu dengan yang lainnya.  Penggunaan asam klorida dengan konsentrasi 1,50% menghasilkan dekstrin yang mempunyai daya larut dalam air yang terbaik, dengan nilai derajat asam yang rnemenuhi persyaratan standar SNI.  Disarankan untuk mengolah pati menjadi dekstrin menggunakan katalis asam klorida dengan kosentrasi 1,50%.

Kata kunci :  dekstrin. pati sagu, asam klorida, asam sulfat, sifat fisika-kimia

101.    Pratiwi

PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH HUTAN MELALUI TEKNIK MULSA VERTIKAL UNTUK KONSERVASI TANAH DAN AIR (The Utilization of forest Waste Through Vertical Mulch Techniquefor Soil and Water Conservation)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol.2, No. 1, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Pembangunan hutan tanaman umurnnya diarahkan untuk memperbaiki lahan-lahan marginal, khususnya lahan yang mempunyai jenis tanah Oxisols dan Ultisols.  Jenis-jenis tanah ini sangat peka terhadap erosi dan mempunyai kesuburan yang rendah. Pembangunan hutan tanaman seringkali mempunyai beberapa masalah terutama pada tiga tahun pertama setelah tanam, seperti: erosi yang tinggi karena aliran permukaan dan kehilangan unsur hara yang banyak, khususnya di lahan yang bertopografi miring.

Pada awal pembangunan hutan tanaman, banyak dijumpai limbah hutan, namun demikian penggunaannya di bidang kehutanan belum banyak dilakukan.  Limbah hutan merupakan bahan organik, yang dapat memperbaiki sifat-sifat fisik, kimia dan biologi tanah dan pada akhirnya dapat menurunkan erosi dan rneningkatkan kesuburan tanah.  Pemanfaatan limbah hutan di bidang kebutanan dapat dilakukan melalui teknik mulsa vertikal. Penelitian-penelitian yang pernah dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa penerapan mulsa vertikal di hutan tanaman dapat menurunkan erosi dan meningkatkan kesuburan tanah.

Kata kunci : limbah hutan, mulsa vertikal, konservasi tanah dan air

Summary

Forest Plantation development is directed to improve marginal land, especially in land with Oxisols and Ultisols. These soils are very sensitive to erosion and have low fertility. During first three years after planting, the development of forest plantation usually has some problems such as: high erosion due to run-off and lost of nutrient, especially in the steep slope areas.  Therefore these problems have to be solved.

In the beginning phase of forest plantation development, there are abundant plant waste, that has not been utilized properly. The waste is organic matter, which could improve physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil and ultimately the application of plant waste could decrease soil erosion rate and increase soil fertility. Application of plant waste in forestry sector could be carried out by vertical mulch technique. The study indicate that using this technique in forest Plantation could decrease soil erosion and increase soil fertility significantly.

Keywords : forest waste, vertical mulch, soil and water conservation

102.     Pratiwi dan Agus S. Tjokrowardojo

PROSPEK TEKNOLOGI OLAH TANAH KONSERVASI DALAM PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN TANAMAN POLA TUMPANGSARI (Prospect of Conservation Tillage Technology on Forest Plantation Development Using Agroforestry Pattern)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol.2, No. 1, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Pengelolaan hutan tanaman tumpangsari tanaman pangan terbukti memberikan nilai tambah berupa meningkatnya pendapatan petani, dan terpeliharanya tanaman pokok yang lebih baik.  Namun demikian, pengelolaan yang eksploitatif tanpa memperhatikan kaidah konservasi tanah, berpotensi menurunkan produktivitas lahan, sehingga dalam jangka panjang tidak menguntungkan bagi managemen kehutanan. Olah Tanah Konservasi (OTK) merupakan alternatif teknologi yang mampu mengatasi masalah ini, disarnping memberdayakan masyarakat desa hutan melalui kemampuan menggarap lahan lebih luas untuk tumpangsari hutan tanaman.

Pengelolaan hutan tanaman tumpangsari ubi kayu sistem OTK dapat menghemat biaya penyiapan lahan dan pemeliharaan tanaman sebesar Rp 170.000/ha. Penerapan teknologi OTK di areal hutan tanaman tumpangsari layak dikembangkan, karena berpotensi mempertahankan/meningkatkan produktivitas, disamping meningkatkan pendapatan petani. Dalam jangkapanjang dapat mendukung pembangunan hutan tanaman berkelanjutan.

Kata kunci  :  hutan tanaman, tumpangsari, olah tanah konservasi

Summary

Management of forest plantation using agroforestry pattern was proved to have added value on increasing farmer income, and better tree growth.  However, exploitative management of forest land without considering conservation principles could decrease land productivity and in the long run could provide negative impact for forest management.  Conservation tillage seems to be one alternative that could overcome this problem and empower forest community surrounding forest area to cultivate more land for agroforestry.

Forest plantation management using agroforestry pattern with cassava and implementing of conservation tillage decreases land preparation and plant maintenance cost about Rp.170.000 per hectare. Conservation tillage in forest plantation using agroforestry pattern is suitable to be implemented, because it has the potential to intrease land productivity and farmer income and, in the  long run, the method could support the development of sustainable forest plantation.

Keywords: Forest plantation, agroforestry, conservation tillage

103.    R. Sawitri dan Garsetiasih

PENDEKATAN MODEL PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM ESTUARIA MELALUI KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS IKAN DAN UDANG DI S. WAY KAMBAS, T.N. WAY KAMBAS, LAMPUNG (Approaching model of estuaria ecosystem management based on fish in Way Kambas Park, Lampung)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, P3H&KA, No. 627, Tahun 2001

Summary

Way Kambas estuary is a complex ecosystem. This ecosystem is affected by salinity, vegetation, small invertebrate, vertebrate, debit and water turbidity.  One of the vertebrate is fish species.

A study is conducted in three different types of vegetation that are beach forest, mangrove forest, and nipah forest. The fish species richness is about 23 besides shrimps and eel

Fish communities change with increasing proximity to the river mouth. There are numbers of representatives of families more common in brackish and marine conditions such as Hemiamphidae, Eleotridae, Gobidae, and Tetraodontidae. Vegetation may also influence the distribution of fish species through the presence of plant material and the presence of a shading canopy.  Next, debit and water turbidity of estuary affected the diversity of fish species.  Most of them have small eyes and long barbells like manty catfish.

Based on the fish species, environmental management approaching for estuary national park are some activities such as ecotourism, rearing fish, and limited catch fish that can be done by national park authority and surrounding people.

Kata kunci : ikan, ekoturisme, pembesaran ikan dan penangkapan ikan terbatas.

104.    Rachman Effendi, 2001

KAJIAN TEKNO-EKONOMI INDUSTRI MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard)

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 2, Tahun 2001, pp 103-112

Ringkasan

Industri MDF rnempunyai prospek pemasaran dalam negeri dan ekspor yang cerah.  Hal ini karena MDF lebih fleksibel dalam penggunaannya dibandingkan kayu lapis dn papan partikel, sehingga MDF pada masa mendatang akan dapat menggantikan kedua panel tersebut.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aspek teknis dan ekonomis industri MDF dari jenis kayu HTI.

Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa jenis kayu HTI Acacia mangium, Gmelina arborea, dan Eucalyptus urophylla baik digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri MDF.  Sifat fisik dan mekanik produk MDF yang dihasilkan secara umum dapat memenuhi standar Euro MDF Board (EMB) yang diacu, kecuali pada sifat daya penyerapan air yang masih sering cukup tinggi.

Biaya produksi rata-rata per m3 MDF adalah sebesar Rp 479.450,- yang terdiri dari biaya produksi langsung dan tak langsung pada tingkat produksi sebesar 70.000 rn3 per tahun atau 700% dari total kapasitas industri.

Kata kunci : Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), HT], sifat fisik dan mekanik Euro

105.     Rahman Kurniadi.  Harisetijono dan/and LukasRunbokoWibowo, 2001

KAJIAN UPAYA PENINGKATAN PERAN KOPERASI DALAM PENGELOLAAN HUTAN DI HPH PT VENEER PRODUCT INDONESIA (study on Promoting of Cooperative Role for managing State in Forest Concession of PT. Veneer Product Indonesia)

Buletin Penelitian BPK Kupang, Vol. 5 No. 1 Tahun 2001, pp 47

Summary

Shifting paradigm of managing state forest in Indonesia from timber based management to community based management brings a challenging prospective for local people to involve in managing state forest. The new government policy give an opportunity for group of local people in form of cooperative, to contribute in management of forest and forest product in regard to increase local People welfare.

In response to the government policy, the study on local people cooperative is undertaken in surrounding area of forest concession of PT Veneer Product Indonesia. The aims of study are :     (a) to examine the possibility of cooperative for managing state forest (b) to find information about capability of a develop cooperative in line with managing state forest.

The study showed that local people have several constrains in developing cooperative and managing state forest. The major constrains are lack of capital, limited knowledge of cooperative and forest management. Therefore many effort should be done in order to strengthen the capability of local people in forest in forest management.

Keywords : cooperative, role, small scale enterprises, participation.

106.    Rena M. Siagian, Han Roliadi & Togar Hendrik Martua

SIFAT PULP KIMIA-TERMOMEKANIK (CTMP) KAYU MANGIUM (Acacia mangium Wilid) DARI BERBAGAI TINGKAT UMUR (Properties of mangium (Acacia mangium Willd) Chemi-Thermo-Mechanical Pulp of various wood maturities)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 4, Tahun 2001

Summary

This investigation deals with the assessment of mangium (Acacia mangium Willd.) wood plantation of various maturities for the manufacture of chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) with varying chemical (alkali) concentrations. The properties of CTMP examined were those related to its possibility newsprint. The ages consisted of three levels (i.e. 6,7 and 10 years) at which the respective mangium stands were normally harvested from their first rotation. Three ages groups, of mangium were felled for obtaining wood samples. Afterwards, the mangium woods were chipped for further investigation. The alkali concentrations for pre-pulping (chip-softening) stage were consecutively 2, 4, 6 and 8 percent. In the Asplund refiner, the softened chips underwent a 15 minute pre-steaming at 5 psi and then fiberized into pulp for 3 minutes in the Asplund refiner. The resulting pulp were determined for their yield, and further bleached by using peroxyde in 2 stages. The bleached pulps were also examined of their yield, and subsequently made into hand sheet at the targeted gram mage (50 gram per sq.m) for testings of their actual gram mage, strength, and optical properties.

Data analysis reveals that different wood ages and varying alkali concentrations did not contribute significant effect on their bleached pulp yield.  The pulp yields were relatively high in the range of 60 - 75 percent.  The hand-sheets of pulp in terms of its gram mage, ranged from 43.0 to 51.6 g/M2 ' These could satisfy the SNI (Indonesian National Standards) requirements for newsprint. The thick nesses of pulp sheets, which were above 0.10 mm, did not meet the newsprint pulp standard quality requirement.  Physical properties of mangium CTMP as described by their tensile, and tear index were correlated positively with wood age. On the contrary, these properties were not affected by alkali concentrations. Further, the different wood maturities brought about significant changes in pulp brightness; and so did the alkali concentration, whereby the brightness was affected negatively.  Further, the opacity of the pulp sheet was not affected by wood maturities and alkali concentrations.

Wood of 10 years old and with alkali concentration at 2 percent were found to be the optimum treatment combination for its application in the manufacture of CTMP for newsprint. The gram mage, thickness, physical, and optical properties of the resulting CTMP, satisfy the SNI requirement for newsprint.

Keywords : Acacia mangium, wood maturities, alkali concentration, CTMP

Ringkasan

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh umur kayu mangium dan penggunaan bahan kimia dalam pembuatan pulp kimia termomekanik (CTMP) terhadap sifat pulp untuk kertas koran.  Umur kayu mangium yang dicoba adalah 6 tahun, 7 tahun dan 10 tahun hasil tanam rotasi pertama. Konsentrasi bahan kimia NaOH yang ditambahkan untuk pelunakan serpih dalam pembuatan pulp sebesar 2, 4, 6 dan 8 %.  Pemisahan serat dilakukan di dalam Asplund refiner selama 3 menit setelah dilakukan pelunakan serpih pada alat yang sama selama 15 menit pada tekanan 5 psi. Pulp yang diperoleh dihitung rendemennya, dan dilakukan pemutihan pulp menggunakan peroksida dua tahap.  Pulp putih yang diperoleh dibentuk lembaran dengan target gramatur 50 g/M2 untuk diuji ketahanan fisik dan sifat optiknya.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa umur kayu dan konsentrasi NaOH tidak memberi pengaruh yang nyata terhadap rendemen pulp dan umumnya menghasilkan rendemen cukup tinggi, yaitu berkisar antara 66 sampai 75%.  Lembaran pulp yang dibuat hampir seluruhnya memenuhi syarat gramatur untuk kertas koran (SNI) dengan kisaran antara 43 - 51,6 g/M2. Tebal lembaran yang dihasilkan belum memenuhi syarat ketebalan untuk kertas koran, semuanya lebih tebal dari 0,10 mm.  Sifat fisik lembaran pulp CTMP dari kayu mangium yang digambarkan oleh indeks tarik dan indeki sobek dipengaruhi oleh umur kayu, sedangkan konsentrasi NaOH dan interaksi kedua faktor tidak nyata pengaruhnya. Pertambahan umur kayu berkorelasi positif terhadap sifat fisik lembaran pulp. Derajat putih pulp dipengaruhi secara nyata oleh faktor umur kayu, dan konsentrasi NaOH. Peningkatan umur kayu dan konsentrasi NaOH memberi pengaruh negatif terhadap derajat putih pulp.  Opasitas cetak lembaran pulp tidak dipengaruhi oleh faktor umur kayu dan konsentrasi NaOH.

Kayu mangium umur 10 tahun dengan penggunaan konsentrasi NaOH 2% merupakan kombinasi perlakuan terbaik untuk diaplikasikan dalam pembuatan pulp kertas koran. Hal ini ditinjau dari gramatur, tebal, sifat fisik dan sifat optik lembaran pulp yang umumnya memenuhi persyaratan SNI untuk kertas koran.

Kata kunci : Acacia mangium, umur pohon, konsentrasi alkali, CTMP

107.    Richard G. N. Triantoro, Anna R. M. Renwarin, and Herman Remetwa, 2001

SIFAT-SIFAT FISIK ROTAN ASAL HUTAN DATARAN RENDAH PAMI MANOKWARI (Physical Properties of Rattan From Lowland Forest of Pami Manokwari)

Buletin Penelitian BPK Manokwari, Vol. 6 No.1 Tahun. 2001, pp 42

Summary

Research on physical properties of rattan had been done in Forestry Laboratory of Faperta Uncen Manokwari during November 5th until March 24h 1995. The research objective is to get information about physical properties of rattan from lowland forest of Pami Manokwari.  The result showed that Korthalsia zippellii have the highest wet Water content, and Calamus hollrungiin was the lowest.  The Highest air-dry water content is Calamus hollrungii, and the lowest one is Korthalsia zippellii.  Calamus hollrungiin have the highest specific density in there conditions (wet air dry and dry klin), and Korthalsia Zippellii is the lowest.  Them is o shrinking value in longitudinal direction (zero), whereas the highest shrinking value in radial direction is belong to Korthalsia Zippellii and then Calamus heterochantus. Cylindrical value of Korthalsia zippellii, Calamus heterochantus and Calamus holrungii can be classified as sharp cone-shaped. The length of internode of Korthalsia Zippellii, Calamus sp.1. and Callamus hollrungi can be grouped as as medium internode (20-30 cm) and long internode (30-40 cm), whereas Calamus heterochantus instead of include in both group also have short internode (10-20 cm).  Diameter of Calamus sp.1 and Calamus heterohantus classified into small diameter (0,4 - 1,8 cm.), and CaIamus hollrungii is medium diameter (1,9 - 2,8 cm), and Korthalsia zippellii can be grouped into both sizes (small and medium diameter. The species of Calamus Sp.1., Calamus heteochantus and Callamus hollrungii are elastic and have bight color stem (ivory yellow), whereas Korthalsia zippellii is not so elastic and have unbright color.

Keywords: physical properties, Rattan, Korthalsia zippelliii, Calamus heterochantus, Calamus sp1

108.    Rina Kumiaty dan Dida Syamsuwida

PENYIMPANAN BENIH DAHU (Dracontomelon dao)

Buletin Tek.  Perbenihan (Seed Tech. Bull.) Vol. 9, No. 1, 2001  hal 110-118

Abstract

The main objectives of this reseach/experiment were to investigate the effect of containers, room conditions, and storing periods on the viability of Dahu (Dracontomion dao) seeds during their storage.

The containers were consisting of two types (i.e. opened and enclosed plastic boxes) inside which the seeds were stored for particular periods in consecutively ambient room (± 350C). Air conditioned room (±2O0C),and refrigerator(±5 0C). Meanwhile the storing periods as such were l-, 2-, 3-, and 4-weeks, Respectively.

Acompletely randomtzed design with factorial pattern was assigned in this experiment. whereby the factor were diffent containers, room condition. storing periods.  Certain type of container with particular room condition was regarded as experimental unit, which consisted of 50 seeds.  Further, the overall units were each replicated 3 times. The observed response following the storing periods in this regard was percent germination of the seeds, which merely reflects or correlates positively with their viability.

The results reveal that factors of container, room conditions, and storing periods interacted affecting the germination of seeds in that the highest percentage was obtained by storing them in open plastic container, placed in the air-conditioned room, and kept them 3-weeks.  Simultaneously, the moisture content of the seeds in that situation underwent some significant decrease.  Such situation, hence, turned out to be the most appropriate in prolonging the seed viability.

Keywords : Dracontomelon dao seeds, storage, gemination

109.    Rusli M. Harahap, Jayusman, A. Dany Sunandar Endin lzudin, Wendra S Manik dan S. Lumbantobing

Podocarpus neriifolius, D. Don untuk Hutan Tanaman (Podocarpus neriifolius, D. Don for Plantation Forest)

Buletin BPK P Siantar Vol.17 No.1 Th 2001 hal. 57-70

Summary

This paper deal with Podocarpus neriifolius D.Don technical information obtained from the result of surveys conducted at six location in North Sumatra and West Sumatra Province.  The explanation focused on the botanical, local name, distribution, tree performance, wood characteristic/properties, uses, silviculture aspect and management. Those information will be useful as for further basic consideration in management and development of the species in large scale plantation or community forest.

Keywords : P. neriifolius, silvicultural, forest plantation, community forest

110.    S. Sumadiwangsa

POTENSIAL USE OF MODIFIED SAGO AS AN EXTENDER  FOR UF PLYWOOD ADHESIVE

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2, No, 1, 2001

Abstract

Since 1970, both the number and the capacity of Indonesian plywood factories have increased rapidly.  In 1995, Indonesian plywood factories produced about 13.6 million cubic meters of plywood.  This production consumed about 240.938 tons of imported wheat flour. It has been proposed that wheat flour can perhaps be replaced by another starchy material.  Like wheat flour, sago flour has a high starch content; therefore, it could be a potential substitute for wheat flour as an extender of UF (urea-formaldehyde) adhesives.  However, the differences in the molecular size and starch content, like gluten, make sago’s physical properties different from wheat flour when it is used to extend UF adhesives.

Sago flour is water-extracted from the pith of sago (Metroxylon sagus  Roxb.) trees.  Sago palm trees mainly grow in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Philippines.  It is estimated that a year in Indonesia there are about 3.6 million tons resources of dry sago flour from the sago trees.  If there are no harvesting,  the tree will die and the sago flour resources will disappear.

In this research the modified sago flour will be tested for its effectiveness as an extender of UF adhesives.  Sago flour will be modified by two methods.  First by acid modified (by HCl), and the second by phosphorylation (by a mixture of mono- and di-sodium phosphate) to achieve appropriate properties as an extender of UF-adhesives.

Keywords  :  modified sago, extender, plywood industry

111.    Sasa Abdurrohim, 2001

IMPREGNASI LIMBAH GALVANISASI SENG PADA DUA JENIS KAYU DENGAN DUA METODE PENGAWETAN

Info Hasil Hutan, Vol. 8 No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 20-24

Ringkasam

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa limbah galvanisasi seng dapat mencegah serangan jamur perusak kayu.  Limbah ini harus dimasukkan ke dalam kayu jika digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet sehingga penelitian impregnasi perlu dilakukan.

Limbah galvanisasi seng dengan konsentrasi 10% dan 25% dimasukkan ke dalam teras dua jenis kayu secara rendaman dingin dan sel penuh.  Contoh yang digunakan sebanyak 20 buah dari setiap jenis kayu berukuran 50 cm x 5 cm x 5cm, dalam keadaan kering udara.

Limbah galvanisasi seng dapat dimasukkan pada kayu sungkai (Peronema canescens) dan mangium (Acacia mangium) dengan lama rendaman dingin 3 hari dalam konsentrasi 25%.  Secara sel penuh, yaitu dengan vakum awal dan akhir yang digunakan adalah 65 cm Hg masing-masing selama 30 menit dan 15 menit serta tekanan 10 atm selama satu jam dengan konsentrasi 10%.

Kata kunci : impregnasi. limbah galvanisasi seng, jenis kayu, retensi, penembusan.

112.    Sasa Abdurrohim, 2001

KETERAWETAN 23 JENIS KAYU TERHADAP BAHAN PENGAWET CCB

Info Hasil Hutan, Vol. 8 No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 25-30

Ringkasan

Percobaan keterawetan 23 jenis kayu telah dilakukan secara set penuh menggunakan bahan pengawet CCB (tembaga-khrom-boron), Contoh uji kering udara berukuran 5 cm x 5 cm x 100 cm diawetkan dengan konsentrasi 3%, dengan vakum awal dan akhir sebesar 500 mm Hg masing-masing selama 15 menit dan tekanan hidratulik sebesar 10 atm selama satu jam.

Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa 11 jenis mempunyai keterawetan mudah, delapan jenis sedang, tigajenis sukar dan satu jenis sangat sukar. Retensi yang dicapai pada kayu dengan keterawetan sama sangat beragam sehingga dalam pengelompokan perlu memperhatikan retensinya. Kayu yang dapat diawetkan bersama-sama adalah pulai kongo, siban, kayu arang, gundang, nyaling, tusam, leban dan rambai punai; penjalin. kayu gading dan salamander; kisereh, kapur. kibawang, mahoni dan suren: sengon buto, kilemo dan telsai; lansat hutan, laban kapas dan laban tanduk; serta biti.

Kata kunci : keterawetan, proses sel penuh, retensi, penembusan dan CCB (tembaga-khrom boron)

113.    Satria Astana, 2001

KEBIJAKAN PENGEMBANGAN AGRIBISNIS BAMBU

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 11-28

Ringkasan

Dalam jangka pendek hingga menengah kontribusi industri hasil hutan dalam perekonomian nasional besar kemungkinan cenderung menurun selama kontribusi industri hasil hutan bukan (non) kayu dan jasa hutan tidak dapat mengkompensasi berkurangnya kontribusi industri kayu. Sebagai salah satu hasil hutan bukan kayu, bambu memiliki peranan penting.  Pengembangan agribisnis bambu merupakan upaya strategis untuk meningkatkan kontribusi hasil hutan bukan kayu.  Namun demikian, hasil kajian ini menyimpulkan bahwa secara keseluruhan perkembangan kinerja sistem agribisnis bambu masih jauh dari harapan.  Kinerja subsistem agibisnis hulu diindikasikan oleh lemahnya industri perbenihan dan pembibitan, sementara subsistem usahatani oleh supply deficit.

Kinerja subsistem pengolahan diindikasikan oleh bangkrutnya sebagian pengrajin dan industri skala menengah,, sementara subsistem pemasaran oleh lemahnya daya saing dan struktur pasar yang tidak efisien (monopoli; oligopoli). Kinerja subsistem jasa pendukung diindikasikan oleh absennya kebijakan yang kondusif termasuk jasa perkreditan dan asuransi serta penelitian dan pengembangan. Direkomendasikan bahwa untuk mewujudkan pengembangan sistem agribisnis bambu yang bersifat kerakyatan, berdaya saing, berkelanjutan, dan berdimensi otonomi daerah, memerlukan adanya sosialisasi dan reorientasi kebijakan. Dari orientasi kebijakan yang berpihak kepada kelompok masyarakat tertentu bergeser kepada rakyat banyak yang berpenghasilan rendah; dari kebijakan peningkatan produksi sebesar-besarnya ke kebijakan pengembangan wilayah pasar dan peningkatan daya saing produk; dari kebijakan pengembangan bisnis semata-mata ke kebijakan pengembangan bisnis yang bewawasan lingkungan; dan dari kebijakan sentralislik ke kebijakan desentralistik sebagai perwujudan implementasi olonomi daerah.

Kata kunci : sistem agribisnis, bambu, kerakyatan, daya saing, otonomi daerah.

114.    Satyawati Hadi, Fitri Nurfatriani, M. Zahrul Muttaqin dan Erwidodo, 2001

STUDI DAMPAK KRISIS MONETER TERHADAP KINERJA PENGELOLAAN TAMAN NASIONAL GUNUNG GEDE PANGRANGO

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 2, Tahun 2001, pp 113-123

Ringkasan

Krisis monster yang kemudian berkembang menjadi krisis multidimensi, telah berdampak luas terhadap kehidupan berbangsa dan benegara, serta berdarnpak negatif terhadap kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap pemerintah.  Pada sisi keuangan pemerintah, krisis yang terjadi sejak pertengahan tahun 1997 mengakibatkan terbatasnya dana APBN yang berdampak pada salah satunya, alokasi dana pembangunan taman nasional, termasuk di dalamnya Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango (TNGP).  Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ada atau tidaknya dampak krisis terhadap alokasi dana pembangunn TNGP serta implikasinya terhadap kinerja pengelolaannya.  Untuk mengetahui adanya dampak terhadap pengelolaan TNGP dilakukan dengan menetapkan aspek, kriteria, dan indikator keberhasilan program-program pengelolaan TNGP.  Empat indikator dampak krisis terhadap kinerja pengelolaan TNGP yaitu (1) Anggaran TNGP, (2) Jumlah pengunjung TNGP, (3) Frekuensi gangguan TNGP dan (4) Frekuensi kegiatan pengelolaan.  Dari hasil studi diperoleh gambaran mengenai kinerja pengelolaan TNGP sebelum dan selama berlangsung yaitu (1) Nilai real pendanaan TNGP mengalami penurunan saat krisis sebesar 23,2% pada tahun anggaran 1997/1998 dan sebesar 33,8% pada tahun anggaran 1998/1999 sehingga diantisipasi dengan penyuntikan dana proyek padat karya, (2) Situasi krisis tidak menurunkm jumlah pengunjung dari tahun 1996/1997 sampai dengan 1998/1999, (3) Sebesar 77,8% dari frekuensi gangguan terhadap TNGP mengalami kecenderungan yang meningkat, (4) selama periode tahun 1995/1996 sampai dengan 1998/1999, diketahui bahwa 25% dari frekuensi kegiatan pengelolaan TNGP mengalami kecenderungan yang konstan; 41,7% mengalami penurunan dan 33,3% dari kegiatan pengelolaan mengalami kenaikan.

Kata kunci : dampak krisis, taman nasional, pengelolaan, TNGP

115.    Sentot Adi Sasinuko

KEMENYAN : ANTARA MISTERI, MANFAAT DAN UPAYA PELESTARIAN

KONIFERA No.1 hal 13-18 th 2001

Ringkasan

Kemenyan merupakan komoditi spesifik Propinsi Sumatera Utara yang mempunyai nilai mistik cukup lama dalam kehidupan masyarakat.  Manfaat kemenyan selain untuk keperluan ritual masyarakat, juga sebagai bahan baku industri rokok dan parfum dengan nilai ekonomis cukup tinggi.  Kemenyan dihasilkan dari penyadapan pohon Styrax sp. yang tumbuh baik secara alami maupun dibudidayakan oleh masyarakat terutama di Kabupaten Tapanuli Utara.  Kemenyan Sumatera Utara dipasarkan baik lokal 80% ke P. Jawa maupun ekspor 20% ke Malaysia dan Singapura.  Pembudidayaan kemenyan sebagai hasil hutan bukan kayu andalan pertu dikembangkan sebagai upaya pelestarian dan membantu masyarakat petani kemenyan memperoleh keuntungan lebih baik.

Kata kunci  :  kemenyan, misteri, manfaat, pelestarian

116.    Soetarso Priasukinana dan R. Mohamad Mulyadin, 2001

PEMBANGUNAN DESA WISATA : PELAKSANAAN UNDANG-UNDANG  OTONOMI DAERAH Motto : Back to Village, Act Locally, Think Globally

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 37-44

Ringkasan

Undang-Undang Otonomi Daerah (UU No. 22/99) diberlakukan mulai tahun 2000.  Dalam Undang-Undang tersebut pembangunan akan lebih difokuskan di daerah pedesaan, sehingga dengan demikian akan terjadi perubahan sosial kemasyarakatan dari urbanisasi ke ruralisme (orang-orang kota senang/akan pergi ke desa untuk berekreasi).

Departemen Pariwisata telah membuat program yang disebut pola PIR (Pariwisata Inti Rakyat), dengan mengembangkan pembangunan desa wisata. Dengan dikembangkannya pembangunan desa wisata akan terjadi arus urbansiasi ke ruralisasi yang selama ini terjadi karena pembangunan lebih banyak terjadi di daerah perkotaan, sehingga orang-orang desa banyak pergi ke kota untuk mencari pekerjaan, dan kemudian menetap di kota.  Ruralisme artinya : orang-orang kota senang pergi ke desa untuk berekreasi.  Dengan demikian akan terjadi pemerataan pembangunan sesuai dengan apa yang dikehendaki GBHN tentang TRILOGI pembangunan, dimana salah satunya adalah pemeraataan pembangunan.  Dengan dibangunnya desa wisata akan merubah wawasan dan pengetahuan serta kreativitas orang-orang desa.

Untuk dikembangkannya desa wisata, beberapa upaya yang perlu dilakukan, adalah :

1.   Diadakan bersifat seni, olah raga, dan sebagainya, sehingga desa tersebut banyak dikunjungi penduduk desa lain.
2.   Rapat-rapat Dinas Kabupaten sering diselenggarakan di desa wisata.
3.   Diadakan keriasama dengan Universitas-Universitas yang menyelenggarakan Kuliah Kerja Nyata.
4.   Dipromosikannya desa wisata tersebut yang lebih luas baik di dalam negeri maupun di luar negeri.
5.   Dikembangkannya kesenian dan kebudayaan asli daerah.
6.   Mendidik dan melatih masyarakat setempat untuk SDM nya.
7.   Mengembangkan kerajinan dan makanan asli daerah.

117.    Sona Suhartana

PENGARUH PENEBANGAN TERKENDALI DAN KONVENSIONAL TERHADAP  KERUSAKAN TEGAKAN TINGGAL DAN PRODUKTIVITAS KERJA (The effect of controlled and conventional felling to residual stand damage and work productivity)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 19 No. 4, Tahun 2001

Summary

The study was carried out at a forest company in West Kalimantan in 2000.  The aim of the study is to know the effect of controlled and conventional felling to residual stand damage and work productivity.

Data collected were: felled and damaged trees, trees with diameter of 20 cm and up, diameter and length of log, and felling time. The data was analyzed by t-test.

The results of the study showed :

1)  The average of residual stand damaged is 7.05% for the controlled felling and 11.75 % for conventional felling.  This difference of 4.70% is significant.

2)  The average of work productivity were 17.462 m3/hr for the controlled felling and 24.094 m3/hr for conventional felling. This difference of 6.632 m3/hr is highly significant.

Keywords : residual stand damages, felling productivity, controlled felling technique, conventional felling technique

Ringkasan

Penelitian telah dilakukan pada tahun 2000 di satu perusahaan hutan di Kalimantan Barat. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penebangan terkendali dan konvensional terhadap kerusakan tegakan tinggal dan produktivitas kerja.

Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi pohon yang ditebang, pohon yang rusak, seluruh pohon berdiameter 20 cm ke atas, waktu tebang, diameter dan panjang kayu. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji-t.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa :

1)  Kerusakan tegakan tinggal rata-rata untuk penebangan terkendali sebesar 7,05 % dan untuk konvensional rata-rata sebesar 11,7%.  Terjadi penurunan sebesar 4,70 % bila teknik penebangan terkendali digunakan.

2)  Produktivitas kerja rata-rata untuk penebangan terkendali sebesar 17,462 m3/jam dan untuk konvensional rata-rata 24,094 m3/jam. Terjadi penurunan sebesar 6,632 m3/jam bila teknik penebangan terkendali digunakan.

Kata kunci : kerusakan tegakan tinggal, produktivitas penebangan, teknik penebangan terkendali, teknik penebangan konvensional.

118.    Sona Suhartana & Dulsalam, 2001

KERUSAKAN TEGAKAN TINGGAL DAN PRODUKTIVITAS KERJA PADA TEBANG PENJARANGAN SECARA SELEKTIF; KASUS DI SATU PERUSAHAAN HTI DI SUMATERA SELATAN (Residual stand damage and work productivity in a selective thinning: a case study at a timber estate company in South Sumatera)

Buletin Penelitian Puslitbang Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Vol. 19 N0. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 9-17

Summary

The study was carried out at a timber estate company in South Sumatera in 1999.  The aim of the study is to know the effect of selective thinning to residual stand damage and work productivity.

Data collected were : thinned and damaged trees; residual stand,. thinning time; diameter and length of thinned trees.  The data was analyzed by tabulation.

The results of the study showed that the average of residual stand damage and the average of Work productivity in selective thinning are respectively 6.22% and 56.167 m3/hour.

Key words: selective thinning, residual stand damaged, work, productivity

Ringkasan

Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada tahun 1999 di satu perusahaan HTI di Sumatera Selatan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh tebang penjarangan selektif terhadap kerusakan tegakan tinggal dan produktivitas kerja.

Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi pohon yang ditebang, pohon yang rusak, tegakan tinggal, waktu tebang penjarangan, diameter dan panjang kayu yang ditebang penjarangan.  Data diolah secara tabulasi.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kerusakan tegakan tinggal dan produktivitas kerja rata-rata akibat kegiatan tebang penjarangan selektif masing-masing 6,22% dan 56,167 m3/jam.

Kata kunci : tebang penjarangan selektif, kerusakan tegakan tinggal, produktivitas kerja

119.    Subarudi

EFFECT OF RAW MATERIAL VARIABLES ON MICROWAVE VENEER DRYING PROCESS

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2 No.2 2001

Abstract

At present, the information on microwave veneer drying is very limited even though this technology has many advantages. Therefore, the research on the effect of raw material variables on microwave veneer drying process is needed to be done. The experiment was conducted by laying veneer (Pine radiata D. Don) down into a microwave drying equipment designed by Gregory Turgovnikov. The research results showed that veneer (size 200 x 200 x 3 mm) can be dried by microwave technology for 30 minutes and it reached moisture content of 11 % with volumetric shrinkage of 8 %, and energy efficiency of 2.7 %. The low energy efficiency may not be caused by raw material variables, such as size, thickness, and initial moisture content of the veneer. One of possible causes might be due to the way of veneer is placed on a flat (parallel) position toward the microwave energy source so that most energy escapes and does not touch the veneer surface directly. In order to test this hypothesis, it requires a further research on the effect of different veneer positions toward the microwave cavity.

Keywords : Microwave technology, Veneer drying, and Energy Efficiency.

120.    Subarudi dan Satria Astana

ANALISIS NILAI TEGAKAN HUTAN ALAM (Analysis of Stiimpage Valuefor Natural Forest)

Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2 No. 1 (200 1) pp. 53 - 69

Abstract

Stumpage value (SV) is a minimum rent paid by the forest haevesters (HPH) to the owner of the forest (Government).  The determination of SV is not only to.find an exact value, but also to set the standards for taxes and retribution systems.  SV set by the Ministry of Forestry (MoF) from 1986 to 2000 is relatively lower than its original value becaue the MoF does not care with the increasing of the government's income.  Therefor,, the calculation of SV must use the FOB price of log and the result can be used for provision of forest resource (PSDH) and reforestation fund (DR) A proposal for replacing DR into Land and Building Tax (PBB) is really unrealistic because the subtantive, budget allocation, and pattern of use for both the taxes are highly diferrent. DR is used to financed all activities related to reforestation and rehabilitation, whereas PBB is used for running the implementation of government general tasks.

Keywords : Stumpage Value, Retribution, Tax, Fee, and Natural Forest Management

121.    Subarudi dan Suwidji Basuki, 2001

SEBUAH KONSEPSI : SISTEM KELEMBAGAAN SERTIFIKASI BENIH DAN BIBIT TANAMAN KEHUTANAN

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 55-65

Ringkasan

Munculnya beberapa perusahaan penghasil benih dan bibit tanaman kehutanan, tidak diikuti dengan usaha untuk menerapkan sistem sertifikasi benih dan bibit tersebut.  Oleb karena itu kebutuhan sertifikasi benih dan bibit tersebut perlu segera dibentuk oleh Departemen Kehutanan.

Tulisan ini mencoba membuat konsep dan menguraikan institusi yang terlibat dalam sertifikasi benih dan bibit tanaman kehutanan serta mengevaluasi pelaksanaan dari tugas pokok yang diembannya.  Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa sertifikasi benih dan bibit tanaman kehutanan dapat dilakukan oleh berbagai institusi yang berasal dari pemerintah pusat, pemerintah daerah, dan pihak swasta yang mempunyai kapabilitas, kapasitas dan fasilitas yang baik untuk melaksanakan tugas sertifikasi.  Situasi ini akan mampu menciptakan kompetisi yang "fair" bagi institusi-institusi sertifikasi untuk memberikan pelayanan yang terbaik (mudah, cepat, dan murah) kepada setiap pelanggannya.

Kata kunci : sistem, kelembagaan, sertifikasi, benih dan bibit tanaman kehutanan

122.    Subarudi, 2001

UPAYA PENYELAMATAN TAMAN NASIONAL KUTAI

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 29-35

Ringkasan

Taman Nasional (TN) Kutai merupakan salah satu TN di Indonesia yang kondisinya semakin hari semakin parah akibat perambahan, pembabatan dan penjarahan kayu di dalam arealnya serta kurangnya perhatian dan kesadaran dari Pemerintah Daerah setempat.  Banyak permasalah yang dihadapi datam pengelolaan TN Kulai diantaranya; (i) pembukaan dan pelebaran Jalan Samarinda Bontang, (ii) penyerobotan dan perambahan kawasan. (iii) penetapan Tempat Pembuangan Sampah Akhir (TPA), penebangan liar dan pencurian kayu, dan (iv) keberadaan perusahaan penambangan batu bara.  Oleh karena itu, langkah-langkah yang perlu diambil baik oleh Pemerintah Pusat dan Daerah adalah. (a) melakukan reevalusi kondisi TN Kulai, (b) merubah pola pengelolaan TN Kutai, (c) melaksanakan pengawasan dan pengamanan TN Kutai, dan (d) memberikan sanksi yang tegas dan keras.

Kata kunci : upaya penyelamatan dan Taman Nasional Kutai.

123.    SUBARUDI, 2001

STRATEGI BALITBANG HUTBUN DALAM PENGELOLAAN LAND GRANT "MANAGEMENT" COLLEGES

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 2, Tahun 2001 , pp 67-76

Ringkasan

Land Grant Colleges (LGC) diadopsi dari Amerika Serikat yang merupakan lahan (berhutan) yang diberikan oleh Pemerintah Indonesia kepada lembaga-lembaga riset, pendidikan dan pelatihan untuk mengembangkan kualitas sumber daya manusia.  Istilah LGC telah dirubah menjadi LGMC (Land Grant Management Colleges) karena kata tersebut lebih tepat dari segi substusi (sebuah pengelolaan lahan), segi ilmiah (lahan dikelola dengan menggunakan riset ilmiah), dan segi hukum (pemilik lahan masih dipegang oleh pemerintah).

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan dan Perkebunan (Badan Litbang) telah menerima LGMC (dengan luas 40.000 ha di Sumatera Selatan), tetapi hingga saat ini tidak ada usaha-usaha untuk mengelolanya.  Oleb karena itu, tulisan ini membahas beberapa strategi yang harus dilakukan Badan Litbang untuk memanfaatkan secara optimal LGMC bagi kegiatan-kegiatan riset dan pengembangannya.

Ada 6 (enam) strategi yang harus dipertimbangkan dan dilakukan oleh Badan Litbang, meliputi: (1) pembuatan rencana pengelolaan LGMC sesegera mungkin, (2) melakukan kegiatan-  kegiatan yang mendukung langkah operasional pemanfaatan LGMC, (3) mengembangkan infrastruktur dan fasilitas LGMC, (4) merekrut tenaga-tenaga yang bekerja pada LGMC, (5) merancang sistem administrasi LGMC, dan (6) membangun sistein pengawasan terhadap pengelolan LGMC.

Kata kunci : strategi, land grant management colleges, manajemen, pengelolaan

124.    Subarudi, 2001

RISET ITU MAHAL : MAJANEMEN RISET SANGAT DIPERLUKAN

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 2, Tahun 2001, pp 87-95

Ringkasan

Berita-berita di surat kabar tentang keluhan masyarakat terhadap kinerja lembaga-lembaga riset nasional dapat diterima secara logis karena kegiatan riset itu membutuhkan biaya yang besar sehingga lembaga riset memerlukan informasi yang mendasar tentang keterkaitan antara riset, ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi sebagai dasar untuk mewujudkan visi dan misinya.

Disamping itu diperlukan juga suatu sistem evaluasi kinerja dari lembaga riset yang memang belum pernah dirancang oleh lembaga yang berwenang sehingga untuk pembuatan sistem tersebut dapat meniru dan mengembmgkan dari Sistem Akreditasi Perguruan Tinggi yang dibuat oleh Departemen Pendidikan Nasional sehingga hal ini akan membuka peluang kompetisi yang adil dan merata untuk semua lembaga riset untuk meningkatkan ranking kualitas lembaganya secara nasional, regional dan international.

Dalam rangka mengantisipasi penerapan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 25 Tahun 2000, dimana kegiatan pendidikan dan penelitian menjadi kewenangan pemerintah daerah, dan perkembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Teknologi Abad 21, setiap lembaga riset dituntut untuk mulai memikirkan posisi dan restrukturisasi lembaganya yang kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penyediaan perangkat keras dan lunaknya sebagai upaya meningkatkan produktivitas dan kinerja lembaganya di masa mendatang.

Kata kunci : riset, ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, manajemen riset, perang keras dan lunak dan parameter

125.    Sudin Panjaitan dan Heru Sutikno

ANALISIS EKONOMI PENEBANGAN DENGAN METODE TEBANG RUMPANG PADA PENGELOLAAN HUTAN ALAM PRODUKSI (An Economic Analysis of Gap Simulation Cutting System in Natural Production Forest Management)

Buletin Teknologi BTR Banjarbaru No.7 hal 26-34 Th 2001

Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyze economic feasibility on the application of gap simulation cutting system by comparing with TPTI system.  The research was conducted in PT.  Hutan Kintap (South Kalimantan), PT.  Tanjung Raya and PT. Inhutani 111 (Central Kalimantan).  Analysis methods used in this study were Net Present Value (NPV), Revenue Cost Ratio (RCR), Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) with time period of 30 years.  The result of this research showed that gap simulation cutting system has better economic feasibility than that of TPTI system.  The unwillingness of the companies to apply this system are due to lower financial value than that of TPTI system.

Keywords : economic analysis, gap simulation cutting, TPTI System, production natural forest management

126.    Sukresno, Agung B. Supangat, dan Mastur

EVALUASI DAMPAK KEBAKARAN HUTAN TERHADAP PERUBAHAN SIFAT-SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA TANAH PADA AREAL HTI PT. IHM-KALIMANTAN TIMUR (The Evaluation of Forest Fire Impact on Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics Changes at HTI area of PT. IMM-East Kamimantan)

Buletin Teknologi BTP DAS Surakarta, Nomor VII, 2, 2001

Abstract

Wild fires that influenced forest fire in Indonesia are known to be associated with drought cycle caused by El-Nino event. Forest fire during dry months in 1997 mainly at forest plantation estate (HTI) area in East Kalimantan was also associated with El-Nino occurrence. The impact of forest fire not only damaged the forest stands but also causes considerable environmental problem, e.g., soil degradation. The study objective was to evaluate the impact of forest fire on soil characteristics changes at HTI area in PT. IHM, Penajam subdistrict, Pasir district, East Kalimantan province. The study was using comparative method to evaluate the different soil characteristics between soil under ex-HTI area burned in 1997 and soil under unburned HTI. The study was conducted in 1999 or two years after forest fire, The results indicate that forest fire at ex-HTI land area in 1997 have reduced the soil bulk density, soil porosity, water availability, organic matter content (OM) and C soil. This in turn reduce soil infiltration rate, therefore increases runoff water.  The final product is soil erosion.

Keywords : El-Nino, forest fire, soil characteristics, plantation forest, East  Kalimantan

127.    Sukresno, Ugro H Murtiono, dan Paimin

EVALUASI DAMPAK KEBAKARAN HUTAN TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK HIDROLOGI DAS PADA AREAL HTI PT. IHM-KALIMANTAN TIMUR (The Evaluation of forest Fire Impact on Watershed Hydrological Characteristics on HTI Area of PT. IHM-East Kalimantan)

Buletin Teknologi BTP DAS Surakarta, Nomor VII, 2, 2001

Abstract

Fire as one type of forest disturbances has been known influenced changes of watershed environment condition. The effect time of the forest fire disturbance on hydrological condition changes are influenced by many factors. To study, the impact of forest fire in 1997 on hydrological condition changes at forest plantation estate (HTI) area at PT. ITCI Hutani Manunggal, Penajam sub district associated with, Pasir district, East Kalimantan province, mainly at Sepaku subwatershed with an area of 950 ha, was evaluated using a unit hydrograph analysis. The hydrological parameters of unit hydrograph are runoff volume (Q), peakflow (qp), time to peak (tp), and time base (tb). The HTI area were consist of Paraserianthes falcataria (sengon) planted in 1991/1992 (71%), Eucalyptus deglupta planted in 1993/1994 and 1994/1995 (29%).  Almost 98% of sub watershed was burned in 1997/1998. Some of Eucalyptus deglupta burned in 1997/1998 (10%) has been rehabilitated using Acacia mangium stand in 1998. The results indicate that forest fire has influenced in : a) increasing direct runoff volume (Q) by 71%, b) increasing pekflow (qp) by 82%, and c) faster time to peak (tp); and d) although the forest fire was occurred in two years before, there has still had an impact on hydrological characteristics however in 1999 the impact tend to come again in the previous condition.

Keywords : forest fire, Hydrological characteristics, runoff volume, peak flow, time to peak, time base, forest plantation, HTI

128.    Suwandi dan Sudrajat

APLIKASI NPK ORGANIK KONSENTRAT (Slow Release) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN STEK MURBEI (Morus alba) PADA MEDIA CAMPURAN GAMBUT DAN SERBUK GERGAJI (The application of NPK organic concentrate "Slow release" on the growth of Morus alba cutting in mixed peat soils and sawdust media)

Buletin BPK P Siantar Vol.17 No.1 Th 2001 hal. 23-32

Summary

This research was about the application of NPK Organic Concentrate fertilizer on the growth of murbei (morus alba) cutting on mixed peat soils and sawdust media in 3 months.  The NPK Organic Consentrate used consist of green giant NPK 5 gr, 1 0 gr and 15 gr respectively for each cutting. Data was analyzed with Randomized Compleks Design.  The parameter measured were length of budding, branching diameter, total of leaf area of leaf length of root and the weight of root in air dry.  The result showed that green giant NPK of.15 gr/plant has significant influence to the growth of the length of budding.  Meanwhile its influence toward the branching diameter, total of leaf area of leaf length of root and the weight of root in air dry has not significant effect.

Keywords  :  NPK organic, murbei, peat

129.    Suwardi Sumadiwangsa

NILAI DAN DAYA GUNA PENANAMAN POHON TENGKAWANG (SHOREA spp.) DI KALIMANTAN (The Value and Benefit of  Tengkawang Tree (Shorea spp.) Plantation in Kalimantan Island)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol.2, No. 1, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Biji tengkawang (Borneo Illipe nut) merupakan salah satu Hasil Hutan Bukan Kayu (HHBK) yang penting sebagai bahan baku lemak nabati. Karena sifatnya yang khas, lemak tengkawang berharga lebih tinggi dibanding minyak nabati lain seperti minyak kelapa, dan digunakan sebagai bahan pengganti minyak coklat, bahan lipstik, minyak makan dan bahan obat-obatan. Di Indonesia terdapat sekitar 13 jenis pohon penghasil yang tersebar terutama di Kalimantan dan sebagian kecil di Sumatera. Tulisan ini mengupas jenis penghasil, produksi dan proses ekstraksi biji tengkawang serta keunggulan nilai penanamannya. Penanaman tengkawang sudah saatnya dilaksanakan terutama di Kalimantan mengingat pohon tersebut merupakan pohon khas Kalimantan dan bijinya bernilai tinggi, Seperti diketahui sampai sekarang biji tengkawang dipungut dari pohon tengkawang tumbuh di hutan alam.  Sebagai hasil tambahan bila produksi biji telah menurun, kayunya dapat dipungut untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai salah satu jenis kayu bernilai tinggi yang banyak diminati baik untuk penghara industri kayu lapis maupun industri kayu gergajian.

Kata kunci : biji tengkawang, Kalimantan, nilai guna, pohon penghasil, penanaman

Summary

Tengkawang kernel (Borneo illipe nut) is one of the famous Non- Wood Forest Products (NWFP), it is a resource of an importance vegetable fat.  Due to the unique properties, tengkawang fat has higher value comparing to the other vegetable oils such as coconut or palm oil. It is suitable to use it as a cocoa butter substitute, as lipstick base-material, and medicine as well. There are more than 13 species of tengkawang tree in Indonesia, mainly grown in Kalimantan and afew in Sumatera.  This paper deals with the resource species, post harvesting, extraction methods and the need for its plantation. Tengkawang species has to be cultivated soon, especially in Kalimantan as the resource of a valuable tengkawang kernel that up to now just harvested from the natural forest. At the end of kernel production period, the trees can be cut to produce valuable timber for plywood and sawn timber industries.

Keywords : tengkawang kernel, Kalimantan, benefit, tree resource, plantation

130.    Suwardi Sumadiwangsa & Dendi Setyawan

KONSEPSI STRATEGI PENELITIAN HASIL HUTAN BUKAN KAYU DI INDONESIA (Research Strategic Concept on Non- Wood Forest Product in Indonesia)

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Vol.2, No. 2, Th. 2001

Ringkasan

Paradigma baru sektor kehutanan memandang hutan sebagai sistem sumberdaya yang bersifat multi fungsi, multi guna dan memuat multi kepentingan serta pemanfaatannya diarahkan untuk mewujudkan sebesar-besarnya kemakmuran rakyat. Paradigma ini makin menyadarkan kita bahwa produk hasil hutan bukan kayu (HHBK) merupakan salah satu sumber daya hutan yang memiliki keunggulan komparatif dan paling bersinggungan dengan masyarakat sekitar hutan.  HHBK terbukti dapat memberikan dampak pada peningkatan penghasilan masyarakat sekitar hutan dan memberikan kontribusi yang berarti bagi penambahan devisa negara.

Untuk menjawab paradigma baru sektor kehutanan, isu strategist tantangan dan peluang bagi pembangunan sumberdaya yang tersedia; perlu dibuat suatu konsepsi/inovasi strategi penelitian HHBK Indonesia. Bagi keperluan dunia penelitian dan pengambil keputusan konsepsi ini dapat dimanfaatkan dalam rangka penyusunan rencana jangka pendek, menengah dan panjang pembangunan produk HHBK Indonesia. Tujuannya adalah pemberdayaan dan peningkatan sumberdaya hutan, ekonomi rakyat dan peningkatan devisa bagi negara.

Keluaran dari konsepsi/inovasi strategi penelitian HHBK Indonesia adalah sebuah program penelitian HHBK yang dapat digunakan sebagai acuan dalam melaksanakan penelitian untuk menghasilkan teknologi tepat guna baik berupa insentif maupun diversifikasi. Kegiatan ini diharapkan dapat mengakomodasi seluruh permasalahan produk HHBK (inventarisasi, budidaya, produktivitas, mutu, dan diversifikasi produk, sosial ekonomi, pemberdayaan masyarakat, peraturan/perundangan, dan diversifikasi sosial-ekonomi). Dampaknya akan bermuara pada penyediaan teknologi, pembangunan ekonomi, pemberdayaan sosio-budaya, pelaksanaan aspek pelestarian, dan peningkatan pandangan positif terhadap produk HHBK Indonesia.

Kata kunci : hasil butan bukan kayu, konsepsi, strategi, penelitian HHBK, paradigma baru, keluaran

Summary

The new paradigm in forestry regards forest as a multi-purpose and multi-benefit resources system that contains multi-interest so that their utilization must be aimed at increasing the welfare of local community.  This paradigm reminds us that non-woodforest products (NWFPs) have quite high comparative advantages and most closely related to local community.  It has been proved that NWFPs can increase local community incomes and provide foreign exchange for the state.

To put the paradigm in effect, the strategic issues, challenges and opportunities of NWFPs development need to be formulated into a Research Strategy Concept (RSC). This strategy concept can be used by both researchers and authorities in formulating short, medium and long term plans of NWFP development in Indonesia.  The objectives are to improve the resources, local community economy and foreign exchange.

The output of the RSC is a well formulated research program of NWFPs which is used as a guidance in conducting research to produce appropriate technology both for product incentive and diversification.  The activities are expected to cover all NWFPs problems related to inventory, cultivation, productivity, quality, product diversification, socio-economy, community empowering, regulations, and socio-economic diversification. The ultimate impact is the provision of appropriate technology, economic development, socio-cultural improvement, sustaining practices and improving positive image of lndonesian NWFPs.

Keywords  :  non-wood forest products, research strategy, NWFP research, new paradigm, output

131.   Syofia Rahmayanti, Tigor Butarbutar dan Apud Safrudin

PENGARUH JENIS DAN KONSENTRASI HORMON TERHADAI PERTUMBUHAN STEK RAMIN (Gonystylus bancanus Kurz) ( The effect of some growth Regulators and concentrations ) on Growth of Stem Cutting of Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus Kurz)

Buletin BPK P Siantar Vol.17 No.1 Th 2001 hal. 57-70

Summary

This research deals with the effect of several growth regulator of different concentration on the growth of ramin stem cutting.  Treatment by 500 ppm IBA has a bigger sprouting percentage than by IAA and NAA in the same concentration and also by IBA, IAA and NAA in other concentration (0 ppm, 1 000 ppm and 2000 ppm).

Keywords : Ramin, IBA, IAA, NAA

132.    Titi Kalima, 2001

TAKSONOMI DAN POTENSI JENIS ROTAN ENDEMIK (Calamus occidentalis J.R. Witono & J. Dransfield) DI TAMAN NASIONAL UJUNG KULON, JAWA BARAT (Taxonomy and Potency of Endemic Rattan Species (Calamus occidentalis JR.  Witono & J. Dransfield) in Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, Puslitbang Hutan & KA, No. 625 Tahun 2001, pp 43

Summary

Among the 25 rattan species found in Java, two are endemic.  Calamus occidentalis is one of such two endemic found only in West Java.  Part of the exploration activities in botanical research division is conducting field observation on its potency and distribution.  Studies concerning the taxonomy and potency of the endemic species had been carried out in Ujung Kulon National Park Preliminary result on species inventory done in the south part of  Ujung Kulon areas showed a high potency of  this species.  Standards methods of inventory development by Curtis (in Muller and Dumbois and Ellenberg, 1974) were used to obtain data on its density and frequency.  Data were collected from July 1997 and further analyzed to predict its potential sources.  The illustration is referred species were described and identified in Forest Botany Herbarium in Forest Research and Nature Conservation and Development Center, Herbarium Bogorience of Indonesian Science Institute, both locates in Bogor. It is hoped that result of this study could significantly contribute in term of conservation effort on rattan species and dissemination of information regarding rattan aspect to other users.

Keywords : taxonomy, potency, Calamus occidentalis, Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java

133.    Tjatur Amperawati, Elizabeth Sapulete

ANDALAS (Morus macroura Miq): Jenis Potensial Surnatera Barat Yang Belum Dimanfaatkan

KONIFERA No.1 hal 1-6 th 2001

Ringkasan

Andalas (Morus macroura Miq) merupakan salah satu jenis pohon hutan yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan.  Kayunya berat, kuat, dan keras tetapi mudah dibedakan.  Pohon Andalas yang berumur tua kayunya hampir mirip atau sulit di bedakan dengan kayu jati.  Kayu Andalas banyak dimanfaatkan untuk tiang balok, papan lantai, mimbar masjid, etalase serta bahan baku mebel.  Populasinya di lapangan sudah sangat terbatas dan hanya ditemukan pada beberapa lokasi di Sumatera Barat.  Pohon Andalas tumbuh di hutan-hutan primer, sekunder dan bahkan tumbuh di areal kebun masyarakat, pada ketinggian 900 - 1600 m dpi dengan jenis tanah berpasir dan tanah liat.

Kata kunci : Kayu Andalas, Morus macroara, potensi, Sumatera Barat.

134.   Totok Kartono Waluyo dan Anas Badrunasar

PENYADAPAN,PENGOLAHAN DAN TATA NIAGA GETAH JELUTUNG DI JAMBI

KONIFERA No.1 hal 7-12 th 2001

Ringkasan

Salah satu hasil hutan bukan kayu yang cakup potensial untuk dikernbangkan adalah getah jelutung.  Propinsi Jambi merupakan salah satu daerah sentra getah jelutung dengan tujuan ekspor.  Dikarenakan esploitasi pohon jelutung di hutan alam yang makin ekstensif jenis ini populasinya mulai berkurang.  Akibatnya volume dan nilai ekspor getah jelutung menurun drastis di tahun 1999 (138.970 kg : US$ 55,342.00) dibanding tahun-tahun sebelumnya; tahun 1998: 407.650 kg dengan nilai US$ 203,200.42 dan tahun 1997:478.475 kg dengan nilai US$ 466,452.56. Sehubungan dengan itu jenis ini perlu dilestarikan dan dikembangkan/dibudidayakan antara lain melalui program Hutan Tanaman Industri dapat menghasilkan getah dan kayu.  Pola tata niaga jelutung di Jambi cukup sederhana.  Saluran pemasaran hanya melibatkan 2 atau 3 pelaku  bisnis, yaitu petani/ penyadap, pedagang pengumpul dan pedagang besar/eksportir.

Kata kunci : pohon Jelutung, getah, Jambi

135.   Totok Kartono Waluyo, Nuryana dan Pranoto

SIFAT FISIS DAN MEKANIS 4 (EMPAT) KLON KAYU KARET (The physical and mechanical properties of four clones of rubberwood)

Buletin BPK P Siantar Vol.17 No.1 Th 2001 hal. 71-80

Summary

This paper studied the physical and mechanical properties of four clones of rubberwood from Sumatera Utara i.e. GT I,.  PR 107,- LH 1 and AVROS 2037.  The results showed that : The physical and mechanical properties of four clones of rubberwood are sufficiently different.  Shrinkage from green to air dry condition along langensial direction was considered high ( 2.5% - 3.5% )for LHI ; medium (1.5% - 2.5%) for GTI,.  PR 107 and AVROS 2037.  Using data on average air dry specific gravity, modulus of repture in bending and maximum crushing strength in compression parallel to grain, the strength class (DEN BERGER, 1923) has been worked out and were found to be II gor GT I and III for LH I, PR 107 and AVROS 2037.

Keywords :  Rubberwood,. clone, GT I, LHI, PR 107, AVROS 2037

136.    Totok Mei Untarto, Mahfudz, Bugris Yafid and Gesang Setyadi, 2001

KERAGAMAN JENIS TERUMBU KARANG DI PULAU ROSWAR TAMAN NASIONAL TELUK CENDERAWASIH (Diversity of Coral Reefs in Roswar Island, Marine National Park of Teluk Cenderawasih)

Buletin Penelitian BPK Manokwari, Vol. 6 No.1 Tahun. 2001, pp 10

Summary

Research on coral reefs diversity had been conducted in Roswar island Marine National Park of  Teluk Cendrawasih September 1997. Objective of the Research is to get information about potency and diversity of coral reefs that can be used as based data for managing Marine National Park of Teluk Cendrawasih in the future Line Intercept tracts is the method, which is used for measuring community and life form of corals. Diving along transect line is they way of collecting data. Observation area is divided into three locations that representing whole observation area. Research result should that there are 168 jenis of corals in Roswar Island, and this have high Potency to be developed as marine tourism. The average of life corals coverage is 49,95% can be classified as medium. The percentage of dead corals reefs between 26,77%-42,01% indicated that there exploitation of marine resource by using bomb and poison. As a whole corals reefs in Roswar Island with average of life coral coverage is 49,95% can be classified into medium degradation.

Keywords : Coral Reefs, Roswar Island,  Marine National Park of Teluk Cendrawasih, Life Coral Coverage, Dead Coral Coverage

137.     Triyono Puspitojati, 2001

SISTEM PEMANTAUAN PRODUKSI DAN PEREDARAN KAYU  DI ERA OTONOMI DAERAH

Info Sosial Ekonomi, Vol. 2, No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 45-54

Ringkasan

Sistem pemantauan produksi dan peredaran kayu secara self assessment yang berlaku saat ini perlu dirubah karena tidak efektif mengatasi kayu ilegal dan tidak sesuai dengan kebijakan otonomi daerah.  Di era otonomi, setiap daerah mempunyai kewenangan untuk menyusun dan melaksanakan kegiatan pemantauan sendiri dengan menggunakan biaya sendiri yang berasal dari dana perimbangan keuangan pemerintah pusat dan daerah sektor kehutanan.  Dana perimbangan (provinsi sumber daya hutan dan dana reboisasi - PSDH-DR) hanya untuk daerah penghasil kayu bulat dan pemerintah pusat, sedangkan daerah pemasaran kayu bulat tidak memperoleh langsung dana perimbangan dari kayu bulat yang masuk ke wilayahnya Hal ini dapat menyebabkan pemantauan peredaran kayu bulat dan pengenaan PSDH-DR di daerah pemasaran kayu tidak seintensif sebelum era otonomi daerah.  Karena itu, lokasi pengenaan PSDH-DR harus dialihkan dari daerah pemasaran kayu ke daerah penghasil kayu, dan mengingat maraknya kayu ilegal maka sistem pemantauan pengenaan PSDH-DR sebaiknya dilakukan secara official assessment Sebagai konsekuesinya, sistem pemantauan produksi dan peredaran kayu bulat juga harus dirubah dari self assessment menjadi official assessment dengan fokus pemantauan di daerah penghasil kayu.

Kata kunci:  sistem pemantauan, kayu bulat, otonomi daerah

138.   Tyas Mutiara Basuki dan Asep Sukmana

PERANAN KEBUN KOTA DALAM MENGURANGI POLUTAN (The role of city garden in reducing pollutan)

Buletin BPK P Siantar Vol.17 No.1 Th 2001 hal. 1-8

Summary

The increasing vehicles reflects an economic development, but it also creates environment problems.  The fuel combution of the vehicles causes pollution.  A natural way to preverent or to reduce pollution is by planting trees.  In order to get information the role of afforestation tress in R 7educing pollution and noise, a study was conducted in Medan.  In the study, four locations were selected.  Sudirman and Brigjen Katomso streets represented the areas having dense traffic and afforestation trees. For the location having dense traffic without afforestation trees representing by MT.  Haryono and Ir.  H. Juanda Baru streets.  The Result of the study showed that a city garden planting by afforestation trees could reduce C02 lead (Pb), dust in the air and reduced noise.  Among the studied tree species in Sudirman streets, the highest content of lead in leave was found is S. macrophylla.

Keywords : pollution, Afforestation, C02, Pb, dust, noise

139.    Ucup Hidayat dan Abdullah Syarief Mukhtar

KAJIAN KEANEKARAGAMAN MAKROZOOBENTOS INVERTEBRATA SEBAGAI BIOINDIKATOR KUALITAS AIR DANAU LIDO (Study of Invertebrata Macrozoobentitic Diversit as Bioindicator for Lido Lake Water Quality)

Buletin Penelitian, P3H&KA, No. 626 Th. 2001

Summary

Invertebrata Macrozoobenthic is the animal classified as an invertebrate which has the size bigger than one mm and lives at  the bottom of shallow of deep aquatic zone.

This research was aimed to observe the diversity for benthic species as biological indicators for water quality of Lido Lake such as. (a) benthic community structure, (b) occurrence and distribution of benthic, (c) monitoring of species diversity, (d) benthic species, (e) simililarty index and (f) dominance index.

The result indicated,that for species diversity indices "Shannon- Wiener " in Lido Lake varies between 1, 38 and 3,19.  According to Wilhm (1975) this values is considered as light to moderate pollution. The Morisita indices is 0,00 - 8,00, classified as uniform to crimped. The species similarity is high and has no dominant species.  According to environmental quality indices from Ott (1978), the water quality of Lido Lake is considered as moderate.

Keywords : Makrozoobentos Invertebrata, keanekaragaman, bioindikator, kualitas air, Danau Lido

140.    Ugro Hari Murtiono, Sukresno, dan Irfan Budi.  P

MODEL HUJAN - LIMPASAN MAKSIMUM PADA DAS DENGAN FORMASI GEOLOGI BERKAPUR (Rainfall-runoff model on karst formation)

Buletin Teknologi BTP DAS Surakarta, Nomor VII, 2, 2001

Abstract

Hydrologic modeling has been developing and it is usefull for basic data in managing water resources. The aim of the research is to develop empirical hydrologic model in karst formation especially factors influencing maksimum runoff.  Multiple regression is used to data analyze.

The result shows that (Y) = - 26.715 + 167.412 X1 + 1.0646 X2 - 7.932 X3 + 255.764 X4 -30.812 X5 + 449.824 X6 + 218.028 X7 . where Y = maximum runoff (mm), X1 = maximum rainfall intensity (mm/hour), X2 = catchment area (ha), X3 = catchment shape coefficient , X4, X5, X6, and X7 is percentage of forest area (%), percentage of dry land area (%), percentage of paddy field area (%), and percentage of terrace area (%) espectively.

In order to induce water resources, factors influencing maximum runoff in the model can be changed the model can be applied only in karst formation.

Keywords : maximum runoff, multiple regression, karst formation

141.    Wawan Halwany

PENGARUH INOKULASI ISOLAT RHIZOBIUM DAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFOR TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN ANAKAN SENGON BUTO (Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb) (Effect of Inoculation of Rhizobium Isolate and Phospor Fertilizer on the Growth of Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb Seedling)

Buletin Teknologi Reboisasi BTR Banjarbaru No.6  hal 15-26 th 2001

Summary

The Family of Legum has great utilization potential in tropical agriculture particularly in livestock production as a protein source and increasing soil fertility, due to its capability to fixed atmospheric nitrogen.

Response of Enterelobium cyclocarpum on several rhizobiurn's innoculations and application of phospate fertilizer was studied.  Inoculation of Rhizobium (Ec 0295, Ec 0495, Ec 0695, Ec 0895, Ec 1095 and Ec 1295) resulted significantly higher dry weight of root nodule and ratio of top-root.  On the other hand, the effect of rhizobium inoculation on height, diameter and biomass was not significant.

Triple Super Phosfat (TSP) fertilizer gave significant effect on the dry weight of root, but parameters did not effect significantly.  This case might be due to the duration of measurement was to short and due to the slow release feature of phospate fertilizer.

Keywords : Rhizobium, Enterelobium cyclocarpum, triple super phospat

142.     Wesman Endom & Zakaria Basari, 2001

PERBANDINGAN PENYARADAN KAYU DENGAN SISTIM MANUAL DAN EKSAVATOR DI HUTAN RAWA BAGIAN III : KAJIAN TEKNIS, EKONOMIS DAN EKOLOGIS (Comparation of manual and Excavator Log Extraction System in Swamp Forest Part III: Study on Technical, Economical and Ecological Study)

Buletin Penelitian Puslitbang Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Vol. 19 N0. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 19-39

Summary

Modified excavator is one of heavy equipment that might be useful and environmentally friendly to be used for operational logging extraction especially in swamp forest.  It is therefore besides convenient and powerful, it is also helpful as an effective alternative in anticipating the weakness of manual system which is called "kuda-kuda'.

Related to the case, a study by implementing both manual system and excavator uws done in a forest concession, i.e.  PT.  Inti Prona, at cutting black covering the 1997/1998 area that located under management of Sub Forest District Dumai, Riau Province. The Study covered aspects of extraction productivity, extraction cost, and logging impact on the possible damage of residual forest stands due to the implementation of both systems.

The result showed that the average of logs extraction productivity was 16.80 m3 hm per hour.  With respect to the ecological impacts, it was found that residual forest stand damage occurred at 17,29% per ha (at pole stage) and 17,17 % per ha (at tree stage).  Further, operation cost hauling was assessed at Rp 5,600 per m3 of extracted log.

Meanwhile, manual log extraction mimed productivity at 2,46 m3.hm per hour. Ecological impact due ton constrictions of manual road extraction system and landing site (TPn). Was the occurrence of damage to pole and tree stages at 28,25% and 34,33%, respectively.  In the same occasion, cost of manual extraction was about Rp 23.000 per m3.

Keywords : excavator, productivity, damage, tree, poles and extraction cost

Ringkasan

Penggunaan mesin eksavator yang telah dimodifikasi untuk kegiatan penyaradan kayu bundar di hutan produksi alam alam tanah rawa merupakan salah satu alternatif yang cukup efektif dalam menanggulangi kelemahan kinerja pengeluaran kayu yang saat ini banyak dilakukan dengan sistem kuda-kuda. Penelitian penggunaan mesin eksavator ini dilakukan di perusahaan HPH PT. Inti Prona blok rencana karya tahun 1997/1998 yang berada di wilayah kerja Cabang Dinas Kehutanan Dumai, Dinas Kehutanan Propinsi Riau.

Obyek penelitian meliputi produktivitas kerja, biaya penyaradan dan dampak kerusakan  terhadap tegakan tinggal dari kedua sistem tersebut. Hasil pengamatan terhadap penggunaan mesin eksavator yang dimodifikasi menunjukkan bahwa hasil kinerja penyaradan mencapai sebesar 16,80 m3.hm per jam. Dampak ekologis yang menyebabkan kerusakan terhadap tingkat tiang terjadi sebesar 17,29% per ha dan untuk tingkat pohon 17,17% per ha, sedangkan biaya operasi mencapai Rp 5.560 per m3. 

Untuk penyaradan secara manual, produkhvitas kerjanya mencapai 2,46 m3 hm per jam. Dampak ekologis akibat pembuatan jalan ongkak dan tempat pengumpulan kayu (TPn) mengakibatkan kerusakan tingkat tiang rata-rata 28,25% per ha dan tingkat pohon 34,33% per ha. Biaya operasinya mencapai Rp. 23.000 per m3.

Kata kunci : Eksavator, produktivitas kerja, kerusakan pohon, tiang dan biaya penyaradan

143.    Wesman Endom and Zakaria Basari, 2001

KLASIFIKASI KERUSAKAN TEGAKAN TINGGAL, EROSI TANAH HUTAN DAN IKLIM MIKRO UNTUK PENETAPAN AMBANG BATAS DALAM PEMANENAN TEBANG PILIH DI HUTAN ALAM (Classification on the damages of residual forest stands, erosion of forest soil, and deteriorating micro climate for determining threshold of logging impact employing selective cutting in natural forest)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan, Vol. 19 No.2 Tahun 2001, pp 69-88

Summary

The logging impact on wood harvesting operation at natural forest is an important element that should be pay attention by all people to get sustainable forest management.  This information is needed in order the forest damaged can be maintained to achieve health forest recovery of the logged forest area and high potency, so we can do the next harvest with a similar volume and quality or oven more.  That is our hope and sustain continuously.

To achieve this, the criteria and size of threshold forest damages is required.  There is 3 main group of damages to be known i.e. threshold of residual stand damage, threshold of forest soil damage and threshold of micro climate.

Based on consideration that in the reality in general was found logging impact still high so because globally in the world asking logging with friendly it is essential to provide a limit of forest damage.  Some activities that may produce heavy forest damage was road construction, felling, skidding and log yard establishment.

Key words : impact of logging operation, valuation, threshold, sustainable forest management

Ringkasan

Dampak negatif akibat kegiatan pemanenan kayu di hutan alam merupakan salah satu elemen yang perlu mendapat keperdulian semua pihak, karena prinsip ini memiliki arti penting untuk mendukdng terlaksananya keberlanjutan pengelolaan hutan secara restart. informasi tersebut sangat diperlukan dengan tujuan agar dengan tingkat kerusakan yang timbul, diharapkan dapat terbentuk kembali hutan alam campuran bekas tebangan yang sehat dengan potensi tinggi, sehingga pada siklus pemanenan yang telah ditetapkan berikutnya, kayu dan hasil lainnya bisa dipanen lagi dengan volume dan kualitas serupa atau bahkan lebih besar.  Demikian seterusnya.

Dalam upaya itu, maka dipandang pertu ditetapkan kriteria dan ukuran ambang batas toleransi kerusakan yang diperkenankan.  Ada 3 kelompok utama ambang batas kerusakan yang dinilai penting yaitu ambang batas terhadap kerusakan tegakan tinggal, ambang batas terhadap kerusakan fisik tanah hutan dan ambang batas terhadap iklim mikro.

Mengingat kenyataan di lapangan bahwa dampak negatif pemanenan secara umum ditemukan masih cukup tinggi, maka di alam dunia global yang menuntut lebih diperhatikannya pemanenan ramah lingkungan, keberadaan pembatasan tingkat kerusakan sangat diperlukan. Adapun beberapa kegiatan utama yang menjadi penyebab utama yang menjadi penyebab tingginya kerusakan antara lain ialah pembuatan sarana dan prasarana jalan, penebangan dan penyaradan kayu dan pembuatan tempat pengumpulan kayu sementara (TPn).

Kata kunci : dampak pemanenan hutan, penilaian, ambang batas, pengelolaan hutan secara lestari

144.    Y. S. Jafarsidik

SEED RAIN OF SOME DIPTEROCARPS AND NON-DIPTEROCARPS  IN A LOGGED-OVER FOREST AT KINTAP, SOUTH KALIMANTAN

Forestry Research Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2001

Abstract

Seed rain observation on dipterocarps and some non-dipterocarps was conducted in a logged-over forest at Kintap, South Kalimantan, from February 1992 to March 1993. The study was aimed at determining monthly fluctuations of the seed rain, coherent with the composition of the dipterocarps occurring in the site studied.

Twelve seed traps of rectangular wooden trays were put in every plot of 50 m x 50 m, each tray was randomly placed in alternate subplot of  10 m by 10 m. A total of 228 traps were placed in 19 plots (divided into Blocks A-F) in January 1992. The first seed collection was done in February 1992, and  every month for 14 months thereafter. The number of seeds collected was  recorded and all dipterocarps and several non-dipterocarps seeds were identified.

The study resulted 4534 seeds (equivalent to 79 seeds per m2) collected in the 14 months period, mostly trapped in February – April 1992 with 83% of the total. The peak was in March 1992 with 45%. The dipterocarp seeds trapped amounted 847, equivalent to a mean of 14.9 per m2, mostly of Shorea. Shorea johorensis had the highest number of seeds trapped, followed by S. parvistipulata, S. ovalis and S. parvifolia. The dipterocarp seeds were last trapped in May 1992, and there were no dipterocarp seeds trapped afterwards until March 1993. The number of diterocarp seeds trapped varied between plots and may reflect differences in density and species. Higher number of seeds trapped was from the plots with more productive trees of the dipterocarps. Non-dipterocarp seeds were trapped mostly during February – April 1992, with the peak in March 1992. Mass fruiting occurred early in 1992 which followed a gregarious flowering in November – December 1991. The gregarious flowering was a response to the increase in average maximum temperature and average maximum irradiation occurred during August – October 1991. Many non-dipterocarps have the same response as dipterocarps to an increase in temperature and irradiation.

Keywords : Seed rain, dipterocarps, logged-over forest, gregarious flowering, mass fruiting, temperature, irradiation

145.    Y.I. Mandang and Krisdianto, 2001

ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF FIVE MAJOR WOOD SPECIES GROWN IN JAMBI, SUMATERA (Sifat anatomi dari lima jenis kayu utama yang tumbuh di Jambi, Sumatera)

Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan, Vol. 19 No.2 Tahun 2001, pp 117-136

Ringkasan

Ciri umum dan anatomi beberapa jenis kayu utama di Jambi, Sumatera, telah dipelajari. Tujuannya adalah untuk mendapatkan ciri-ciri sebagai landasan identifikasi kayunya, kegunannya yang sesuai serta kemungkinannya untuk dibudidayakan secara luas.  Lima jenis kayu utama sudah diamati dan dipertelaakan: balam (Palaquiuni gutta Bail.), bayur (Pterospennum diversifolium Bl.), medang (Litsea sp), mahang (Macaranga pruinosa Muell. Arg.) dan merkubung (M. gigantea Muell.  Arg.). Balam dan bayur cocok untuk bahan konstruksi rumah, kayu lapis dan mebel. Balam menghasilkan serat berkualitas sedang, bayur menghasilkan serat berkualitas baik. Oleh karena itu balam dan bayur sangat dianjurkan untuk dibudidayakan secara luas.  Mahang dan merkubung terlalu ringan dan lunak untuk bahan konstruksi di mana sifat kekuatan merupakan hal ulama.  Namun mahang dan merkubung menghasilkan serat berkualitas baik sehingga dapat dianjurkan untuk dibudidayakan sebagai sumber serat. Medang cukup baik untuk bahan konstruksi dan seratnya juga berkualitas sedang. Namun adanya sel minyak dalam jaringan kayu serta kemungkinan berpengaruhnya terhadap sifat perekatan dan pengecatan haruslah diperhatikan sebelum keputusan diambil untuk pembudidayaannya secara luas.

Kata kunci : Palaquium, Pterospermum, Litsea, Macaranga, identifikasi, sifat kayu, pemanfaatan, Jambi, Sumatera

Summary

General characteristics and anatomical properties of several major wood species in Jamb, Sumatra, have been studied. The purpose is to find out their characters for identification, their appropriate uses and their possibilities to be widely cultivated. Five major wood species have been identified and described: balsam (Palaquium gutta Bail.), bayur (Pterospermum diversifolium Bl.), medang (Litsea sp.), mahang (Macaranga pruinosa Meull. Arg.), and merkubung (Macaranga Gigantea Muell.Arg.). Balam and bayur are suitable for house construction, plywood, furniture; and their fibers are fairly good for pulp. Therefor balam and bayur are highly recommended to be widely cultivated. Mahang and merkubung are too light and soft for construction purposes where strenght properties are of prime importance. However mahang and merkubung fibers are of good quality so they still can be recommended to be widely cultivated for pulp source. Medang is fairly appropriate for construction purposes and having fairly good quality fibers as well. However the occurrence of oil cells inside wood tissue and the possible effect of the exudates on gullibility and paint ability, have to be considered before decision is made for its cultivation in large quantities.

Keywords : Palaquium, Pterospermum, Litsea, Macaranga, wood identification,wood properties,  wood utilization, Jambi, Sumatera

146.    Y.I. Mandang dan Usep Sudardji, 2001

ANATOMI DAN KUALITAS SERAT SEMBILAN JENIS KAYU KURANG DIKENAL ASAL KALIMANTAN TIMUR (Wood Anatomy and Fiber Quality of Nine Lesser Known Wood Species From East Kalimantan)

Buletin Penelitian Puslitbang Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Vol. 19 N0. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 41-67

Summary

One way to overcome the shortages of raw material for wood based industries in Indonesia nowadays is to utilize the lesser known wood species.  Therefore, the basic properties of this lesser known wood species should be studied.  Wood anatomy of nine lesser known wood specie from East Kalimantan have been observed and described for identification purposes and for evaluation of their properties and then appropriate uses.

For identification purpose several main features have been noted : 1) Perforation plot scalarifom in Mastixia trichotoma and Drypetes sp.; 2) closely spaced parenchyma bands and radial intercellular canal in Ficus Variegata,. 3) parenchyma reticulate in Drypetes sp, Diospyro macrophylla and Koilodepas sp. ; 4) fiber septate in Glochidion philippicum; 5) rays almost exclusively homocelullar with gum-like deposite in vessels of Lansium sp.

Seven aut of nine wood species examined contain fibers of medium quality for pulp and paper among others : Blumeodendron kurzii, Ficus variegata and Mastixia trichtoma.  The other tw( species contain fibers with poor quality.  Two species, Drypetes sp and Koilodepas sp. have ligh colour and decorative appearance and with considerable strength to be used as raw material for fancy furniture and decorative panel.  Ficus variegata has anatomical structure which allow it to easily be peeled in to fine decorative veneer for plywood.

Key words : lesser known wood species, wood anatomy, identification, fiber quality

Ringkasan

Salah satu upaya untuk mengatasi kekurangan pasokan bahan baku industri perkayuan di Indionesia dewasa ini adalah pemanfaatan jenis-jenis kayu kurang dikenal.  Oleh karena itu sifat dasar jenis-jenis kayu yang kurang dikenal perlu diselidiki. Sebanyak sembilan jenis kayu kurang dikenal asal Kalimantan Timur sudah diamati dan dipertelakan untuk keperluan identifikasi serta evaluasi kemungkinan pemanfaatanya yang sesuai.

Untuk keperluan identifikasi beberapa ciri utama telah dicatat: 1) Pembuluh dengan bidang perforasi bentuk tangga pada Mastixia trichotoma don Drypetes sp.; 2) Parenkim bentuk pita marginal berjarak teratur dan saluran interselular radial pada Ficus variegata; 3) Parenkim bentuk jala pada Drypetes sp, Diospyros macrophylla don Koilodepas sp; 4) Serat bersekat pada Glochidion philippicum,. 5) Jari-jari hampir seluruhnya homoselular serta endapan mirip getah dalam pembuluh Lansium sp.

Dari sembilan jenis kayu yang diamati terdapat tujuh jenis kayu yang mempunyai serat berkualitas II (sedang) untuk pulp kertas yaitu antara lain : Blumeodendron kurzii, Ficus variegata dan Mastixia trichotoma Dua jenis kayu lainnya mempunyai serat berkualitas rendah.

Dua jenis kayu yaitu Drypetes sp. dan Koilodepas sp.  Mempunyai warna cerah dan  penampilan menarik serta berkekuatan memadai untuk bahan baku mebel indah dan fanel hias.  Ficus variegata mempunyai susunan anatomi yang memungkinkannya mudah dikupas serta mempunyai warna dan penampilan menarik untuk dibuat venir muka kayu lapis.

Kata kunci : kayu kurang dikenal, anatomi, identifikasi, kualitas serat

147.    Y.I. Mandang dan Usep Sudardji, 2001

ANATOMI DAN KUALITAS SERAT SEPULUH JENIS KAYU ANDALAN DARI JAWA BARAT

Info Hasil Hutan, Vol. 8 No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 41-69

Ringkasan

Ciri umum dan anatomi sepuluh jenis kayu andalan di Jawa Barat sudah diamati dan dipertelakan guna landasan pengenalan jenis kayunya.  Dimensi seratnya juga diukur guna evaluasi kesesuaiannya untuk bahan baku pulp kertas.

Untuk pengenalan jenis kayunya beberapa ciri penting dapat dicatat: 1) kayu tanpa sel pembuluh dan mengandung saluran damar aksial pada Pinus merkusii Jungh.; 2) kayu dengan pembuluh tata lingkar pada Toona sureni Merr; 3) kayu dengan saluran damar aksial berderet tangensial dan dengan pembuluh hampir seluruhnya soliter pada kayu Dryobalanops lanceolata Burck.; 4) kayu dengan saluran interselular radial 2 macam ukuran pada Alstonia congensis Engi.; 5) kayu dengan parenkim bentuk sayap serta mengandung kristal prismatik berderet vertikat dalam utas parenkim bersekat pada Enterolobium cyclocarpuni Griseb; 6) kayu dengan sel minyak dalam jari jari dan parenkim Cinamomum parthenoxylon Meisn. dan berbau harum; 7) kayu dengan jari jari dua macam lebar serta pembuluh berderet tangensial pada Grevillea robusta A. Cunn.; 8) kayu dengan parenkim pita berjarak kurang teratur pada Azadirachia excelsa Jack dan Swietenia macrophylla King, 9) kayu dengan pembuluh agak kecil dan umumnya berganda radial 2-4 sel serta tanpa sel minyak pada Litsea cubeba Pers.

Dari 10 jenis kayu yang diamati terdapat 4 jenis yang mempunyai penampilan dekoratif serta mempunyai kekuatan yang memadai untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku mebel indah yaitu Azadirachta excelsa, Swietenia macrophylla, Toona sureni dan Grevillea robusta.  Selanjutnya terdapat dua jenis yang mempunyai serat berkualitas 1, baik untuk pulp, yaitu Enterolobium cyclocarpum dan Toona sureni.  Jenis kayu lainnya hanya mempunyai serat yang tergolong kualitas II sampai III.

Kata kunci : anatomi kayu, kualitas serat, jenis kayu andalan, Jawa Barat

148.    Yelin Adalina, Ign.  Purwanto dan Murniati, 2001

ANALISIS POTENSI KESUBURAN ALAMI TANAH PADA LAHAN HUTAN TANAMAN Acacia auriculiformis DI SUMENEP, MADURA, JAWA TIMUR (Natural Soil Fertility Potensial Analysis of Acacia auriculiformis Plantation forest land at Sumenep, Madura, East Java)

Buletin Penelitian Hutan, Puslitbang Hutan & KA, No. 625 Tahun 2001, pp 1

Summary

A study of natural soil fertility potential status has been conducted under plantation forest land of Acacia auriculiformis at Sumenep, Madura, East Java.

The result showed that according to textural soil analysis, the soils under the plantation forest have light to very light texture, i.e: sandy clay loam to sandy clay.  These soil texture classes were feasible for the growth of the forest tree species being studied.

The soil reaction (soil pH) were found at moderate level (pH 3,38 to pH 6,28). This is good condition for growing many species of tree.  On the other hand the organic matter content of the soil were found very law (< 1%) as well as the content of total soil nitrogen (also very low) 0,07 - 0,16 %.

Some location showed that the total soil phosphorus nutrient was found low level and the other locations moderate to high level. From the cations proportion analysis it was found that concentration varies from low to moderate, while cations Mg occour in balance proportion (moderate level) in all locations studied.

Even though the base saturation of the soils were found moderate to high (43 - 88%), but cation exchange capacity were classified as low (6,11 - 8,82 me/100 gr).

The soils under A. auriculifomis plantation forest land does not show excessive concentration of Al3- and Fe3+ ions.  Thus there were no low toxicity phenomenon.

It is concluded that some effort should be done in order to improve the natural soil fertility status through green manure application to the plantation forest land for raising C-organic content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) values of the soils.

149.    Yudilastiantoro, Kristian Mairi

POLA PENGELOLAAN HUTAN RAKYAT DI DAERAH TANGKAPAN DANAU LIMBOTO SULAWESI UTARA (The Pattern of Community Forest Management on Catchment Area of Limboto Lake, Sulawesi Utara)

Buletin Teknologi Pengelolaan DAS UP hal 1-12 th 2001

Summary

This research was carried out at Limboto catchments which rolled as Limboto lake's water catchments, Gorontalo province.  The research was held from November 1999 until February 2000.

The aim of the research was to get a pattern of community forest management which could be adopted by the community.  The way of collecting datas wasy survey method and questioner for interview with community public figure and progressive farmers.  Area observation have being held by consultative and individual approaches.  Total respondent from three research locations were 90 persons.

The results showed that the best community forest management is pattern I which used rolling mutual cooperation and coordinate by a leader of community forest farm group.

The average of farmer's income from community forest farming by using pattern I was Rp. 1.587.20,-/ha/year or Rp. 396.800,-/capita/year. This income was still under poverty line standard with assumption that the minimum standard is Rp. 712.000,-/capita/year. There were still some opportunities due to the fact that the community forest has not produced woods yet.  Average age of the trees is two years, so the farmer's income still can be increased.  Estimated production estimate of the trees for 8 years was 26 m3/ha or equivalent with Rp. 5.200.000,-.

Keywords : management patten, community forest, tree production, income

150.    Yusuf S. Jafarsidik & Tjuk Sasmito Hadi

POPULASI JENIS POIION TINGKAT SEMAI DAN BELTA SERTA POTENSI POHON JENIS DIPTEROKARPA DAN NON DIPTEROKARPA PADA AREAL BEKAS TEBANGAN DI HPH PT.  AYA YAYANG INDONESIA, KALIMANTAN SELATAN (Population of seedlings and saplings and potential of dipterocarp and non- dipterocarp trees in the logged-over forests at PT.  Aya Yayang Indonesia, South Kalimantan)

Buletin Teknologi BTR Banjarbaru No.7 hal 11-25 Th 2001

Summary

Logged-over forests may be regarded as a severely disturbed natural system, and through natural dynamic processes and with an appropriate management system sustainable forest production may be maintained.

The study was aimed to assess demography of seedlings, saplings and trees in the remaining stands, and further study will be conducted to observe forest population dynamic after logging, including pattern of growth, mortality and recruitment of trees, seedlings and saplings.  The assessment is expected to provide a better understanding of forest dynamic after logging for sustainable forest management.

An inventory was conducted in the logged-over forests of 2 (Block A), 5 (Block B) and 10 (Block C) years after logging, each in 5 plots randomly placed on 500 by 500 m (= 25 ha) area, 15 plots in total.  Seedlings were studied in 1 by 1 m quadrate (25 quadrates in each plot), saplings in 5 by 5 m quadrate (5 quadrates each plot) and trees in 10 by 10 m subplot (25 subplots each plot).

The result of the inventory indicated there were at least 280 species of seedlings and saplings occurring in all the plots.  Seedlings comprised of 107 species and saplings 212 species.  Trees comprised of at least 20 dipterocarp species, most of non dipterocarps have not been identified.

Block A had 58 species of seedlings with the density of 8,800 ha, Block B 55 species with 9,840 ha and Block C 99 species with 10,400 ha.  Species of saplings in Block A was 99 with the density of 3,648 ha, Block B 76 with 2,048 ha and Block C 123 with 4,480 ha.  Number of species and density of seedlings and saplings was highest in Block C.

The highest basal area of trees (³10 cm dbh) occurred in Block B with 25.4 m2 ha and the least in Block A with 17.2 m' ha-'.  The stand basal areas are more or less the same like in the logged-over forests in Kintap (1996 figure), South Kalimantan.  Dipterocarp trees mostly occurred in Block B and the least in Block C. Trees were dominated by Elateriospermum tapos (Euphorbiaceae) in every Block.  The endemic species, Endertia spectabilis (Leguminosae), might be occurring in contradictory with dipterocarps, based on its occurrence where it occurred a lot in an area when the dipterocarps occurred less.

Dipterocarps occurring as seedlings, saplings and trees included Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, Dryobalanops lanceolata, Hopea mengerawan, Shorea gibbose, S. hopeifolia, S. johorensis, S. laevifolia, S. leprosula, S. ovalis, S. pamiffolia, S. pinanga and S. smithiana.

Keywords : seedlings, saplings, trees, population, dipterocarp, non-dipterocarps, logged-overforest, South Kalimantan

151.    Yusuf S. Jafarsidik and Tjuk Sasmito Hadi

INDIGENOUS TREE SPECIES AS UNDERGROWTHS IN THE RIAM KIY PLANTATION TRIAL, SOUTH KALIMANTAN (Jenis-jenis pohon lokal di bawah tegakan tanaman percobaan di Riam Kiwa, Kalimantan Selatan)

Buletin Teknologi Reboisasi BTR Banjarbaru No.6  hal 35-46 th 2001

Ringkasan

Rehabilitasi lahan hutan yang didominasi alang-alang, Imperata cylindric merupakan prioritas pertama sektor kehutanan di Indonesia, terutama di Kalimant Selatan.  Luas alang-alang di Indonesia diperkirakan sekitar 8,5 juta hektar diantaranya 500.000 hektar terdapat di Kalimantan Selatan (Garrity et al. 1997).

Rehabilitasi lahan alang-alang mempergunakan jenis-jenis pohon eksot tumbuh cepat telah terbukti berhasil dan efisien.  Penelitiari telah banyak dilakukan, meliputi pemilihan jenis, ujicoba provenans dan teknik-teknik silvikultur.  Dapat dikatan bahwa masalah-masalah teknik dasar rehabilitasi lahan. alang-alang telah dapat diatasi.

Rehabilitasi lahan alang-alang dengan menggunakan jenis tanaman eksot tumbu cepat mempunyai dua tujuan, yaitu yang pertama untuk tujuan komersil tanaman itu sendiri dan yang kedua sebagai fase antara menuju terbentuknya hutan alam denga komposisi jenis-jenis pohon lokal.

Apabila tidak terganggu oleh api lahan alang-alang secara alamiah pertama-tama akan ditumbuhi jenis-jenis pohon pionir dan sekunder, dan kemudian jenis-jenis pohon primer.  Hal itu pasti terjadi akan tetapi berlangsung dalam jangka waktu yang sangat lama.  Proses tersebut dapat dipercepat dengan tanaman perkayaan, pembebasan dai pemilihan jenis pohon yang paling diperlukan.

Inventarisasi jenis pohon yang tumbuh di bawah tegakan tanaman di Riam Kiwa telah dilaksanakan sebanyak dua kali, yaitu yang pertama  tahun 1992 dan kemudian tahun 2000 Inventarisasi yang dilaksanakan pada tahun 1992 dengan intensitas 100% menghasilkan sebanyak 89 jenis pohon, meliputi 81% jenis pionir dan 19% jenis pohon primer . Inventarisasi pada tahun 2000 dengan intensitas 2% menghasilkan sebanyak 90 jenis pohon terdiri dari 26% jenis pionir dan 74% jenis primer. Perbedaan dasar antara dua inventarisasi tersebut adalah dalam jumlah dan komposisi jenis dimana terjadi perubahan secara gradual. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa proses suksesi menuju hutan alam sedang berlangsung.

Beberapa jenis yang umum diketemukan pada kedua inventarisasi tersebut antara lain adalah Alstonia aiigtistiloba, Buchanania arborescen dan Vitex pubeseens.  Jenis-jenis yang diketemukan pada tingkat pohon ( > 1 0 cm dbh) termasuk Alstonia angustiloba, A. scholaris, Buchanania arborescen, Bridelia monoica, Dracontomelon dao dan Macaranga javanica dengan diameter mencapai 14 cm dan tinggi 10 M.

Key words : indigenous undergrowth, plantation, pioneer species, primary species, South Kalimantan

152.    Zakaria Basari, Wesman Endom dan Dulsalam, 2001

KAJIAN PRAKIRAAN BIAYA PRODUKSI SISTEM TEBANG PENYELAMATAN DI HUTAN RAWA BEKAS KEBAKARAN SUATU KASUS DI PERUSAHAAN HPH PT.  SRIBUNIAN PROPINSI SUMATRA SELATAN

Info Hasil Hutan, Vol. 8 No. 1, Tahun 2001, pp 31-40

Ringkasan

Penelitian ini menjelaskan kegiatan pemanenan di areal hutan produksi alami bekas kebakaran dengan sistem tebang penyelamatan, untuk memanfaatkan kayu dari tegakan yang sudah mali akibat adanya kebakaran.

Pelaksanaan penelitian dilakukan pada Bulan September 1999 di perusahaan HPH PT Sribunian yang berlokasi di Cabang Dinas Kehutanan Ogan Komering llir, Dinas Kehutanan Propinsi Dati I Sumatra Selatan.

Materi yang diteliti adalah biaya pendapatan dari yang sudah terjual sebanyak 40.520,47 m3, total biaya pengeluaran dan biaya produksi yang terdiri dari biaya umum, pemeliharaan jalan dan base camp, perencanaan eksploilasi, pelaksanaan pembalakan, pembinaan hutan dan pemasaran besarnya masing-masing biaya tersebut adalah Rp 8.711.858.050, Rp 4.738.825.135, Rp 7.897,28/M3, Rp 419,54/m3, Rp 18.082,70/m3, Rp 1.110,.55/m3, dan Rp 88.821,98/M3. Laba perusahaan yang dihasilkan sebesar Rp 3.672.629.

Kata kunci : produksi kayu, biaya, laba

153.    Zuraida dan M. Bismark

IDENTIFIKASI BEBERAPA JENIS EKTOPARASIT (CAPLAK DAN TUNGAU) YANG TERDAPAT PADA BURUNG MERANDAI DI CAGAR ALAM PULAU RAMBUT (Identification of Some Ectoparasites (Ticks and Mites) at Tize Coastal Birds Pulau Rambut Nature Reserve)

Buletin Penelitian, P3H&KA, No. 626 Th. 2001

Summary

The population size of coastal birds in Pulau Rambut Natural Reserve is constantly decreasing.  Among the main causes are : people's activity along the shore, habitat degradation, illegal hunting, and invasion of bats. Another important factor that may also contribute to the population decrease is the existence of ectoparasites such as ticks and mites that influence the birds health. A research inventory and identify such ectoparasites was carried out in January 1997.  It was found there are 33 colonization of ticks (Argas robertsi) and 13 colonization of mites (Ornythonyssus sp) on the nests of the coastal birds up on the tree.  In addition, the same parasites, both of larvae and adult stages, were also found on the nests located beneath trees. Larvae of Ornythonyssus sp were also found on trees.  Ornythonyssus sp. is more dominant (72% of the total parasite population) compare to Argas robertsi.  The existence of these ectoparasites, which were reported to cause several health disturbances on animal and human as well, might indeed among the cause of the decrease of the bird population.

Keywords : ectoparasites, coastal birds, Pulau Rambut, population decrease